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Amazing Chemistry Powerpoint Presentation!. Aligned to the New York State Standards and Core Curriculum for “ The Physical Setting-Chemistry ”. Outline for Review. 1) The Atom (Electron Config, Nuclear) 2) Matter (Phases, Types, Changes) 3) Bonding (Periodic Table, Ionic, Covalent)

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Amazing Chemistry Powerpoint Presentation!


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    1. Amazing Chemistry Powerpoint Presentation! • Aligned to the New York State Standards and Core Curriculum for “The Physical Setting-Chemistry” Produced by : Mark Rosengarten and Edited by: Susan Katzoff

    2. Outline for Review 1) The Atom (Electron Config, Nuclear) 2) Matter (Phases, Types, Changes) 3) Bonding (Periodic Table, Ionic, Covalent) 4) Compounds (Formulas, Reactions, IMAF’s) 5)Math of Chemistry (Formula Mass, Gas Laws, Neutralization, etc.) 6) Kinetics and Thermodynamics (PE Diagrams, etc.) 7) Acids and Bases (pH, formulas, indicators, etc.) 8) Oxidation and Reduction (Half Reactions, Cells, etc.) 9) Organic Chemistry (Hydrocarbons, Families, Reactions) Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    3. The Atom 1) Nucleons 2) Isotopes 3) Natural Radioactivity 4) Half-Life 5) Nuclear Power 6) Electron Configuation 7) Development of the Atomic Model Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    4. Nucleons - all particles in the nucleus • Protons: +1 charge each, mass of 1amu determines identity of element (like its DNA), • # of protons = atomic number and + nuclear charge, has a mass of 1 amu. • Neutrons: no charge, determines identity of isotope of an element, 1 amu, calculated by mass # - atomic # • 3216S and 3316S are both isotopes of S • S-32 has 16 protons and 16 neutrons • S-33 has 16 protons and 17 neutrons • All atoms of S have a nuclear charge of +16 due to the 16 protons. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    5. Isotopes • Atoms of the same element MUST contain the same number of protons. • Atoms of the same element can vary in their numbers of neutrons, therefore different atomic masses can exist for any one element. These are called isotopes. • The atomic mass on the Periodic Table is the weighted-average atomic mass, taking into account the different isotope masses and their relative abundance. • Rounding off the atomic mass on the Periodic Table will tell you what the most common isotope of that element is. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    6. Weight-Average Atomic Mass • WAM = ((% A of A/100) X Mass of A) + ((% A of B/100) X Mass of B) + … • What is the WAM of an element if its isotope masses and abundances are: • X-200 • Mass = 200.0 amu, % abundance = 20.0 % X-204 • Mass = 204.0 amu, % abundance = 80.0% • WAM= (20% * 200) + (80% * 204) 100 Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    7. Most Common Isotope • The weight-average atomic mass of Zinc is 65.39 amu. What is the most common isotope of Zinc? Zn-65! • What are the most common isotopes of: • Co Ag • S Pb • * Most common isotopes are the rounded mass number. * Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    8. Natural Radioactivity • Alpha Decay • Beta Decay • Positron Decay • Gamma Decay • Charges of Decay Particles • Natural decay starts with a parent nuclide that ejects a decay particle to form a daughter nuclide which is more stable than the parent nuclide was. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    9. Alpha Decay • The nucleus ejects two protons and two neutrons. The atomic mass decreases by 4, the atomic number decreases by 2. • 23892U  42He + 23490Th Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    10. Beta Decay • A neutron decays into a proton and an electron. The electron is ejected from the nucleus as a beta particle. The atomic mass remains the same, but the atomic number increases by 1. • 146C  0-1e + 147N Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    11. Positron Decay • A proton is converted into a neutron and a positron. The positron is ejected by the nucleus. The mass remains the same, but the atomic number decreases by 1. • 5326Fe 0+1 e + 5325Mn Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    12. Gamma Decay • The nucleus has energy levels just like electrons, but they involve a lot more energy. When the nucleus becomes more stable, a gamma ray may be released. This is a photon of high-energy light, and has no mass or charge. The atomic mass and number do not change with gamma. Gamma may occur by itself, or in conjunction with any other decay type. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    13. Charges of Decay Particles in an electric field Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    14. Half-Life • Half life is the time it takes for half of the nuclei in a radioactive sample to undergo decay. • Problem Types: • Going forwards in time • Going backwards in time • Radioactive Dating Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    15. Going Forwards in Time • How many grams of a 10.0 gram sample of I-131 (half-life of 8 days) will remain in 24 days? • #HL = t/T = total time elapsed/ half life time • #HL = t/T = 24/8 = 3 so three half lives have gone by.. • Cut 10.0g in half 3 times: once 5.00, twice 2.50, three times 1.25g Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    16. Going Backwards in Time • How many grams of a 10.0 gram sample of I-131 (half-life of 8 days) would there have been 24 days ago? • #HL = t/T = 24/8 = 3 half lives • Going back in time we would have to double our current amount to find out what we had 3 half lives ago. • Double 10.0g 3 times: once 20.0, twice 40.0, three times 80.0 g is what you would have started with. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    17. Radioactive Dating • A sample of an ancient scroll contains 50% of the original steady-state concentration of C-14. How old is the scroll? • It contains 50% and percent is out of 100 thus, 1 half life has gone by since half of the C-14 concentration is gone. • 50% = 1 HL • 1 HL X 5730 y/HL = 5730y Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    18. Nuclear Power • Artificial Transmutation • Particle Accelerators • Nuclear Fission • Nuclear Fusion Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    19. Artificial Transmutation • 4020Ca + _____ -----> 4019K + 11H • 9642Mo + 21H -----> 10n + _____ • Nuclide + Bullet --> New Element + Fragment(s) • The masses and atomic numbers must add up to be the same on both sides of the arrow. Conservation of mass. Susan Katzoff and Mark Rosengarten

    20. Particle Accelerators • Devices that use electromagnetic fields to accelerate particle “bullets” towards target nuclei to make artificial transmutation possible! • Most of the elements from 93 on up (the “transuranium” elements) were created using particle accelerators. • Particles with no charge cannot be accelerated by the charged fields. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    21. Nuclear Fission • 23592U + 10n 9236Kr + 14156Ba + 3 10n + energy • The three neutrons given off can be reabsorbed by other U-235 nuclei to continue fission as a chain reaction (almost like dominos, one will generate the whole chain to fall) A tiny bit of mass is lost (mass defect) and converted into a huge amount of energy. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    22. Chain Reaction Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    23. Nuclear Fusion • 21H + 21H 42He + energy • Two small, positively-charged nuclei smash together at high temperatures and pressures to form one larger nucleus. • A small bit of mass is destroyed and converted into a huge amount of energy, more than even fission. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    24. Electron Configuration • Basic Configuration • Valence Electrons • Electron-Dot (Lewis Dot) Diagrams • Excited vs. Ground State • What is Light? Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    25. Basic Configuration • The number of electrons is determined from the atomic number. • Look up the basic configuration below the atomic number on the periodic table. (PEL: principal energy level = shell) • He: 2 (2 e- in the 1st PEL) • Na: 2-8-1 (2 e- in the 1st PEL, 8 in the 2nd and 1 in the 3rd) • Br: 2-8-18-7 (2 e- in the 1st PEL, 8 in the 2nd, 18 in the 3rd and 7 in the 4th) Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    26. Valence Electrons • The valence electrons are responsible for all chemical bonding. • The valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost PEL (shell). • He: 2 (2 valence electrons) • Na: 2-8-1 (1 valence electron) • Br: 2-8-18-7 (7 valence electrons) • The maximum number of valence electrons an atom can have is EIGHT, called a STABLE OCTET. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    27. Electron-Dot Diagrams • The number of dots equals the number of valence electrons. • The number of unpaired valence electrons in a nonmetal tells you how many covalent bonds that atom can form with other nonmetals OR how many electrons it wants to gain from metals to form an ion. • The number of valence electrons in a metal tells you how many electrons the metal will lose to nonmetals to form an ion. • EXAMPLE DOT DIAGRAMS Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    28. Example Dot Diagrams Carbon can also have this dot diagram, which it has when it forms organic compounds. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    29. Excited vs. Ground State • Configurations on the Periodic Table are all ground state electron configurations. • If electrons are given energy, they rise to higher energy levels (the excited state). • If the total number of electrons matches in the configuration, but the configuration doesn’t match, the atom is in the excited state. • Na (ground, on table): 2-8-1 • Example of excited states: 2-7-2, 2-7-1-1, 2-6-3 (note the total number of electrons is still 11 if you add them up) Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    30. What Is Light? • Light is formed when electrons drop from the excited state to the ground state. • What goes up must eventually come back down. When the electrons fall back they release energy in the form of light. • The lines on a bright-line spectrum come from specific energy level drops and are unique to each element. (like fingerprints) Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    31. EXAMPLE SPECTRUM This is the bright-line spectrum of hydrogen. The top numbers represent the PEL (shell) change that produces the light with that color and the bottom number is the wavelength of the light (in nanometers, or 10-9 m). No other element has the same bright-line spectrum as hydrogen, so these spectra can be used to identify elements or mixtures of elements. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    32. Development of the Atomic Model • Thompson Model • Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment and Model • Bohr Model • Quantum-Mechanical Model Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    33. JJ Thompson Model • The atom is a positively charged diffuse mass with negatively charged electrons stuck in it. (like a Chocolate-chip cookie) Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    34. Rutherford Model • The atom is made of a small, dense, positively charged nucleus with electrons at a distance, the vast majority of the volume of the atom is empty space. Alpha particles shot at a thin sheet of gold foil: most go through (empty space). Some deflect or bounce off (small + charged nucleus). Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    35. Bohr Model • Electrons orbit around the nucleus in energy levels (shells). Atomic bright-line spectra was the clue. (fills up by 2n2) Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    36. Wave-Mechanical Model (Electron Cloud Model) • Electron energy levels are wave functions. • Electrons are found in orbitals, regions of space where an electron is most likely to be found. • You can’t know both where the electron is and where it is going at the same time. • Electrons buzz around the nucleus like gnats buzzing around your head. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    37. Matter 1) Properties ofPhases 2) Types of Matter 3) Phase Changes Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    38. Properties of Phases • Solids: Crystal lattice (regular geometric pattern), vibration motion only • Liquids: particles flow past each other but are still attracted to each other. • Gases: particles are small and far apart, they travel in a straight line until they hit something,they bounce off container walls and other gas particles without losing any energy, they are so far apart from each other that they have almost no attractive forces and almost no volume, their speed is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature (Kinetic-Molecular Theory, Ideal Gas Theory) Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    39. Solids The positive and negative ions alternate in the ionic crystal lattice of NaCl. Definite Shape Definite Volume Low Entropy Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    40. Liquids When heated, the ions or particles move faster and Eventually separate from each other to form a liquid. Held together loosely but are Moving to fast to maintain a Crystal lattice structure. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    41. Gases Since all gas molecules spread out the same way, equal volumes of gas under equal conditions of temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules of gas. 22.4 L of any gas at STP (1.00 atm and 273K) will contain one mole (6.02 X 1023) of gas molecules. Since there is space between gas molecules, gases are affected by changes in pressure. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    42. Types of Matter • Pure Substances (Homogeneous composition) • Elements (cannot be decomposed by chemical change): Al, Ne, O, Br, H • Compounds (can be decomposed by chemical change): NaCl, Cu(ClO3)2, KBr, H2O, C2H6 • Mixtures • Homogeneous: Solutions (solvent + solute) • The same consistency throughout (salt water) • Heterogeneous: soil, Italian dressing, etc. • Can identify the different components. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    43. Elements • A sample of lead atoms (Pb). All atoms in the sample consist of lead, so the substance is homogeneous. • A sample of chlorine atoms (Cl). All atoms in the sample consist of chlorine, so the substance is homogeneous. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    44. Compounds • Lead has two charges listed, +2 and +4. This is a sample of lead (II) chloride (PbCl2). Two or more elements bonded in a definite whole-number ratio is a COMPOUND. • This compound is formed from the +4 version of lead. This is lead (IV) chloride (PbCl4). Notice how both samples of lead compounds have consistent composition throughout? Compounds are homogeneous! Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    45. Mixtures • A mixture of lead atoms and chlorine atoms. They exist in no particular ratio and are not chemically combined with each other. They can be separated by physical means. • A mixture of PbCl2 and PbCl4 formula units. Again, they are in no particular ratio to each other and can be separated without chemical change. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    46. Phase Changes • Phase Change Types • Phase Change Diagrams • Heat of Phase Change • Evaporation Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    47. Phase Change Types Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    48. Phase Change Diagrams AB: Solid Phase BC: Melting (S + L) CD: Liquid Phase DE: Boiling (L + G) EF: Gas Phase Notice how temperature remains constant during a phase change? That’s because the PE is changing, not the KE. Where temperature changes potential energy remains the same. Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    49. Heat of Phase Change • How many joules would it take to melt 100. g of H2O (s) at 0oC? • q=mHf = (100. g)(334 J/g) = 33400 J • How many joules would it take to boil 100. g of H2O (l) at 100oC? • q=mHv = (100.g)(2260 J/g) = 226000 J Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff

    50. Evaporation • When the surface molecules of a gas travel upwards at a great enough speed to escape. • The pressure a vapor exerts when sealed in a container at equilibrium is called vapor pressure, and can be found on Table H. • When the liquid is heated, its vapor pressure increases. • When the liquid’s vapor pressure equals the pressure in the atmosphere, the liquid will boil. • If the pressure exerted on a liquid increases, the boiling point of the liquid increases (pressure cooker). If the pressure decreases, the boiling point of the liquid decreases (special cooking directions for high elevations). Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff