USED OIL AND OIL FILTERS. CUSTOMIZED ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING. WELCOME. INSTRUCTOR. Insert Instructor Name Here. OBJECTIVES. Define Used Oil. Discuss How Used Oil is Recycled. Discuss the Different Uses for Used Oil. Explain What Businesses Handle Used Oil.
Insert Instructor Name Here
The goal of this course is to provide supervisors with the tools needed to manage used oil. It recommends practical, actions that can be carried out by facility management, maintenance personnel and building occupants. The course will help you to integrate good used oil management activities into your existing organization and identify which of your staff have the necessary skills to carry out those activities.
The course is not intended to provide information to start a used oil collection center or how to process or re-refine used oil. These specialties required training beyond the intended scope of this course. Where this expertise is needed, outside assistance should be solicited.
The provisions of the UORA were incorporated into both the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); however, used oil emerged as a separate issue apart from hazardous waste.
In developing regulations for used oil, EPA has tried to balance the RCRA mandate to protect human health and the environment with the RCRA mandate to conserve resources through used oil recycling.RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT (RCRA)
40 CFR Part 266, Subpart E. This used oil program that primarily regulates used oil recycled by being burned for energy recovery.
40 CFT Part 279. This regulation establishes standards for generators, transporters, transfer facilities, collection centers, processors and re-refiners, burners, and marketers. This rule also included provisions for cleanup in the case of a spill or release of used oil.FEDERAL REGULATIONS
“Used oil is any oil that has been refined from crude oil or any synthetic oil that has been used and as a result of such use is contaminated by physical or chemical impurities.”
Simply put, used oil is exactly what its name implies -any petroleum-based or synthetic oil that has been used. During normal use, impurities such as dirt, metal scrapings, water, or chemicals can get mixed in with the oil, so that in time the oil no longer performs well.
Eventually, this used oil must be replaced with virgin or re-refined oil to do the job at hand.WHAT IS USED OIL?
Origin - Used oil must have been refined from crude oil or made from synthetic materials.
Excluded: Animal and vegetable oils are excluded.
2. Use - Oils used as lubricants, hydraulic fluids, heat transfer fluids, buoyants, and for other similar purposes are considered used oil.
Excluded: Unused oil such as bottom clean-out waste from virgin fuel oil storage tanks or virgin fuel oil recovered from a spill, some solvents, antifreeze and kerosene.OIL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS
Metalworking fluids and oils.
Industrial hydraulic fluid.
Copper and aluminum wire drawing solution.
Electrical insulating oil.
Industrial process oils.
Oils used as buoyants.
This list does not include all types of used oil.USED OIL IS:
Products such as antifreeze and kerosene.
Vegetable and animal oil, even when used as a lubricant.
Petroleum distillates used as solvents.
Oils that do not meet EPA's definition of used oil can still pose a threat to the environment when disposed of and could be subject to the RCRA regulations for hazardous waste management.USED OIL IS NOT:
Wastewaters contaminated with de minimis quantities of used oil are also excluded from the present requirements because these wastewaters are regulated by the Clean Water Act.
De minimis quantities of used oil are small spills, leaks, or drippings from pumps, machinery, pipes, and other similar equipment during normal operations, or when small amounts of oil are lost to the wastewater treatment system during washing or draining.
Any used oil that is recovered from wastewater, however, falls under full regulation as used oil.USED OIL IS NOT:
Recycled used oil can sometimes be used again for the same job or can take on a completely different task.
Benefits of Recycling:
Saving A Resource
Saving MoneyHOW IS USED OIL RECYCLED?
If a used oil needs only reconditioning it can often be done on site.
This involves removing impurities from the used oil and then using it again. This usually involves a system of filters.
While this form of recycling might not restore the oil to its original condition, it does prolong its life.HOW IS USED OIL RECYCLED?
Re-refining prolongs the life of the oil resource indefinitely.
This form of recycling is the preferred option because it closes the recycling loop by reusing the oil to make the same product that it was when it started out, and therefore uses less energy and less virgin oil.
One gallon of used motor oil will yield about 0.7 gallons of re-refined oil.RE-REFINED OIL
This form of recycling is not as preferable as methods that reuse the material.
Eleven percent of used motor oil collected is used in specially designed space heaters in automotive bays and municipal garages across the nation.
This practice is not recommended for home use. The country's approximately 75,000 space heaters use about 113 million gallons of used oil per year.PROCESSED AND BURNED
Seventy-five percent of used oil is being reprocessed and marketed to:
43% asphalt plants;
14% industrial boilers (factories);
12% utility boilers (electric power plants for schools, homes, etc.);
5% cement/lime kilns;
5 % marine boilers (tankers or bunker fuel);
4% pulp and paper mills;
Re-refining used oil takes only about one-third the energy of refining crude oil to lubricant quality.
It takes 42 gallons of crude oil, but only one gallon of used oil, to produce 2 quarts of new, high-quality lubricating oil.
One gallon of used oil processed for fuel contains about 140,000 British Thermal Units (BTUs) of energy.RECYCLING OIL IS GOOD FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
Generators are businesses that handle used oil through commercial or industrial operations or from the maintenance of vehicles and equipment.
Generators are the largest segment of the used oil industry.
Examples of common generators are car repair shops, service stations, quick lube shops, government motor pools, grocery stores, metal working industries, and boat marinas.
Excluded: Farmers who produce less than an average of 25 gallons of used oil per month. Individual’s personal vehicles and equipment.DOES MY BUSINESS HANDLE USED OIL?
Any site or facility that is registered, licensed, permitted, or recognized by a state, county, or municipal government to manage used oil and accept, aggregate, or store used oil collected from used oil generators.
The used oil generator must deliver the used oil in shipments of 55 gallons or less. Used oil collection centers may also accept used oil from household do-it-yourselfers.
Used Oil Aggregation Points
Any site or facility that accepts, aggregates, or stores used oil collected only from other used oil generation sites owned or operated by the owner or operator of the aggregation point.COLLECTION CENTERS
Used oil transporters may consolidate or aggregate used oil for the purposes of transporting and may conduct incidental processing operations that occur during the normal course of transportation (e.g., separating water from used oil that has settled during the aggregation or transportation process). Transporters who otherwise produce used oil-derived products or make these products more amenable for production are considered used oil processors.TRANSPORTERS
These operations include but are not limited to blending used oil with virgin petroleum products, blending used oils to meet fuel specification, filtration, simple distillation, chemical or physical separation, and re-refining.
Does not include generators processing used oil generated on-site for use on-site. If transporters or transfer facilities filter oil from oil-bearing transformers before returning it to its original use, they would not be subject to processing standards.PROCESSORS
Off-specification used oil fuel can only be burned in the following three types of devices:
Hazardous waste incinerators subject to regulation under Part 264/265, Subpart O.
Prohibits the burning of used oil in non-industrial boilers, including boilers located at single or multifamily residences; etc.BURNERS
(1) directs a shipment of off-specification used oil from that facility to a used oil burner, or
(2) first claims that the used oil going to be burned for energy recovery meets the specification requirements.
Used oil marketers can be divided into two categories: those that market off-specification used oil and those that market oil that meets specification. For each category different regulations apply under 40 CFR Part 279, Subpart H.MARKETERS
EPA has developed required good housekeeping practices that you must follow. These required practices, are called "management standards."
The standards apply to all used oil handlers, regardless of the amount of the oil they handle. Although different used oil handlers may have specific requirements, the following requirements are common to all types of handlers. These requirements relate to storage, transporting, cleaning up leaks and spills, and record keeping.STANDARDS
Used oil should only be stored in tanks and containers that are not leaking, rusting, deteriorating, or having other defects.
Containers, aboveground tanks, and fill pipes for underground storage tanks (UST) of used oil should be marked with the words "Used Oil."
USTs that store used oil should also comply with the UST general operating requirements.STORING OIL
Tanks and containers storing used oil do not need to be RCRA permitted, however, as long as they are labeled and in good condition.
Storage of used oil in lagoons, pits, or surface impoundments that are not permitted under RCRA is prohibited.STORAGE
Used oil generators may transport, in their own vehicles, up to 55 gallons of used oil, that is either generated on-site or collected from Do-It-Yourself (DIY) used oil generators, to a DIY used oil collection center, used oil collection center, or aggregation point (e.g., one that is licensed or recognized by a state or municipal government to manage used oil or solid waste).
A used oil generator is not required to obtain an EPA identification number for this off-site transportation activity.TRANSPORTING
If a spill or leak occurs, stop the oil from flowing at the source. If a leak from a container or tank can't be stopped, put the oil in another holding container or tank.
Contain spilled oil.OIL LEAKS AND SPILLS
If you are a used oil handler, you should become familiar with these cleanup methods. They may also be part of a spill response action plan.
Remove, repair, or replace the defective tank or container immediately.OIL LEAKS AND SPILLS
Used oil is considered to be off-specification if it has a flash point below 100 degrees Fahrenheit, or contains more than the allowable levels of any of certain constituents:
- Arsenic 5 ppm maximum
- Cadmium 2 ppm maximum
- Chromium 10 ppm maximum
- Lead 100 ppm maximum
- Total Halogens 4,000 ppm maximumSTANDARDS FOR BURNING
The heater burns only used oil generated on site or from a household "do it yourselfer,"
The heater has a maximum capacity of 0.5 million British thermal units per hour
The combustion gases are vented directly to the outside air.
Check with your Air Pollution Control District if there are any other restrictions.STANDARDS FOR BURNING
Know and understand your state regulations governing the management of used oil they might be stricter than EPA's.
Contact your state or local environmental agency to determine your best course of action.STANDARDS FOR BURNING
Used oil with over 1,000 ppm total halogens, however, may not be blended to lower the halogen level.
A used oil handler blending used oil for purposes of meeting specification would be subject to the processor and re-refiner regulations in 40 CFR Part 279, Subpart F.BLENDING
If used oil is contaminated with hazardous waste, manage it as a hazardous waste.
Hazardous waste disposal is a lengthy, costly, and strict regulatory process.
The only way to be sure your used oil does not become contaminated with hazardous waste is to store it separately from all solvents and chemicals and not to mix it with anything.MIXING USED OIL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE
These mixtures are regulated under both the used oil regulations and solid waste regulations.
A receiving facility which accepts used oil for recycling may not have permits to accept other solid wastes.
Mixing used oil and other waste may make disposal of the mixture more difficult and more expensive.MIXING USED OIL AND NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE
Prevention of spills by installing good housekeeping practices is the best way to avoid costly cleanup.
Regular inspections and employee training will also minimize cleanup costs.
If a spill does occur, protect storm drains with spill absorbent mats.
Confine spills to concrete or other pavement.
For small spills, surround the spill with absorbent socks or absorbent material and then pick up and properly dispose.AVOIDING COSTLY CLEANUPS
EPA recommends, but does not require, the following cleanup practices for used oil handlers:
(1) maximize the recovery of used oil;
(2) minimize the generation of used oil sorbent waste by choosing reusable sorbent materials;
(3) use the spent sorbent materials to produce recycled
(4) buy sorbent materials with recycled content.RECOMMENDED CLEANUP PRACTICES
These technologies, while not required, can be used to reduce the number of sorbent pads ultimately sent for remanufacture, energy recovery, or disposal. The potential to reduce waste and save money (i.e., lower disposal costs for spent pads and lower per use cost of sorbent pads) by reusing and recycling sorbent pads can be substantial.RECOMMENDED CLEANUP PRACTICES
If you have used oil on rags or other sorbent materials from cleaning up a leak or spill, you should remove as much of the free-flowing oil as possible and manage the oil as you would have before it spilled.
Once the free-flowing used oil has been removed from these materials, they are not considered used oil and may be managed as solid waste as long as they do not exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic.RECOMMENDED CLEANUP PRACTICES
Minimize the amount of used oil you produce. Businesses can filter, separate, and recondition used oil to prolong its usable life.
Purchase re-refined used oil products instead of virgin oil products. Products that display the American Petroleum Institute (API) "starburst" meet the same high-quality specifications as virgin oil.
Practice safe management of used oil. Don't mix used oil with anything. Always store used oil in leak-proof containers that are in secure areas safely away from workers and the environment. Send used oil to a re-refiner whenever possible.CONSERVING OIL
Use longer lasting synthetic oils to minimize the amount of used oil and used oil filters generated.
Reduce the amount of virgin oil purchased by reconditioning and then reusing used oil.
Manage used oil safely. Do not mix it with other materials. Store the oil in leak proof containers and tanks in secure areas away from workers and the environment. Label all containers of used oil and other wastes to avoid inadvertent mixing.
Use reusable oil filters.
Recycle used oil filters.CONSERVING OIL
The Filter Manufacturers' Council maintains a regulatory hotline and database to encourage the proper management of used oil filters. By calling the hotline at 800 99-FILTER, you can access the proper management requirements for your particular states. The database contains:
Overviews of federal and state regulations relevant to the management of oil filters.
Addresses and phone numbers of the regulatory agencies governing the management of used filters in each state.
A listing of companies, by state, that transport, process, and recycle used filters.USED OIL FILTERS
Draining used oil from your filters can be performed using one of the following methods:
Puncturing the filter anti-drain back-valve contained in most automotive oil filters or the filter dome, and then hot draining; the anti-drain back-valve consists of a rubber flap that creates a vacuum to prevent oil from draining back into the engine
Hot draining and crushing
Dismantling and hot drainingUSED OIL FILTERS
Generators, collection centers, aggregation points, and any handler that transports used oil in shipments of less than 55 gallons do not need an ID number, but may need a state or local permit.RECORDKEEPING
Verify that used oil is not used for dust suppression.
Determine if used oil fuel is burned at your facility for energy recovery. If so, is it within specifications or is it off specifications.
If off specification used oil is burned, is it burned in an approved industrial furnace, boiler or hazardous waste incinerator?RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
6. Verify that when a release is detected, the following is done:
- the release is stopped
- the released is contained (especially before entering storm water drains)
- the oil is cleaned up properly and the managed properly
- repairs and replacement of any leaking storage containers or tanks takes place prior to returning them to service.RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
8. If more than 55 gallons of used oil is transported, does the transporter have an EPA ID number?
9. Does the used oil transporter have a tracking mechanism (e.g. logs, manifests, etc.)?
10. Verify that the used oil is not mixed with hazardous waste or solid waste.RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
12. Verify that containers, above ground storage tanks and fill pipes used to transfer used oil are clearly marked with the phrase “Used Oil.”RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
USED OIL PROGRAM
“I would ask all of us to remember that protecting our environment is about protecting where we live and how we live. Let us join together to protect our health, our economy, and our communities -- so all of us and our children and our grandchildren can enjoy a healthy and a prosperous life.”
Carol Browner Former EPA Administrator