IS THERE A GLOBAL WATER CRISIS?. "The global water crisis is a major threat to sustainable development: to economic development, to poverty reduction, to the environment, and to peace and security,“ E.U. Environment Commissioner Margot Wallstrom . GPA and CFA productions.
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IS THERE A GLOBAL WATER CRISIS? "The global water crisis is a major threat to sustainable development: to economic development, to poverty reduction, to the environment, and to peace and security,“ E.U. Environment Commissioner Margot Wallstrom GPA and CFA productions
Dawn of a thirsty century By Alex Kirby BBC News Online environment correspondent • The amount of water in the world is limited. The human race, and the other species which share the planet, cannot expect an infinite supply. • Water covers about two-thirds of the Earth's surface, admittedly. But most is too salty for use. • Population is rising, but water supplies are no t only 2.5% of the world's water is not salty, and two-thirds of that is locked up in the icecaps and glaciers. • Of what is left, about 20% is in remote areas, and much of the rest arrives at the wrong time and place, as monsoons and floods. • Humans have available less than 0.08% of all the Earth's water. Yet over the next two decades our use is estimated to increase by about 40%.
IS THERE A WATER CRISIS IN THE UK? • England and Wales has an average rainfall of around 1000mm a year. Long periods of dry weather will often result in droughts and this is evident in the following years: • 1975/76 • 1984 • 1989/90 • 1995 • As a drought becomes more serious, water companies can apply for drought orders.
IS THERE A WATER CRISIS IN THE UK? • Amongst others, the following facts regarding rainfall in 2003 have been released: • Driest January to October since 1959, and the eighth driest in Hadley Centre precipitation series, dating back to 1766 (1921 was the driest). 7 out of 10 months experienced below average rainfall in England and Wales. (Source Met Office) • Driest August to October since 1972, and fourth driest in the Hadley Centre precipitation series (1947 was the driest). Late summer (Aug to Oct) rainfall was only 51% of long term average. (Source Met Office)
THE GLOBAL WATER CRISIS • More then one billion people in the world lack access to clean water, and things are getting worse. Over the next two decades, the average supply of water per person will drop by a third, possibly condemning millions of people to an avoidable premature death. NATURE
THE GLOBAL WATER CRISIS. WHO CARES?1. THE 2nd WORLD WATER FORUM • Freshwater is a precious and finite resource central to sustainable development, economic growth, social stability and poverty alleviation. The Ministerial Declaration of the 2nd World Water Forum in The Hague (2000) identified meeting basic water needs, securing food supply, protecting ecosystems, sharing water resources, managing risks, valuing water and governing water wisely as the key challenges for our direct future.
THE GLOBAL WATER CRISIS. WHO CARES?2.THE UNITED NATIONS • MISSION STATEMENT • This UN-wide programme seeks to develop the tools and skills needed to achieve a better understanding of those basic processes, management practices and policies that will help improve the supply and quality of global freshwater resources. • Our goals are to: • assess the state of the world's freshwater resources and ecosystems; • identify critical issues and problems; • develop indicators and measure progress towards achieving sustainable use of water resources; • help countries develop their own assessment capacity; • document lessons learned and publish a World Water Development Report (WWDR) at regular intervals.
WATER RELATED DISEASES • More than one billion people lack access to a safe supply of drinking water. Water-related diseases are the leading cause of death in the world. This killer takes the lives of more than 14,000 people each day and is responsible for 80% of all sickness in the world. Compounding the problem is the fact that more than 50 percent of the water supply projects in the developing world fail.
THE GLOBAL WATER CRISIS. WHO CARES?3. THE EARTH SUMMIT 2002 • Global water 'crisis' high on Earth Summit agenda • Friday, June 07, 2002 By Dean Yates, Reuters • BALI, Indonesia — Of the myriad issues on the table for a U.N. summit in August that aims to cut world poverty and save the environment, few are as critical as getting safe drinking water to the 1.1 billion people who go without it. • The European Union has warned the world was in a global water crisis and made the issue a priority for the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. • Some delegates have said success — or failure — on water programs could be a roadmarker for the summit as a whole. The United Nations says at least 1.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water and 2.4 billion lack adequate sanitation. More than 3 million people die every year from water-related diseases, the body says. • Halving by 2015 the number of people with no access to clean water and sharply reducing those who lack adequate sanitation are key targets in a draft action plan for Johannesburg. The draft includes a call for countries to make water and sanitation a priority in national development plans; improving sanitation in institutions, such as schools; and promoting safe hygiene. • U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan has put water at the top of five areas where he wants clear commitments at the summit. The others are energy, health, agriculture, and biodiversity.
THE GLOBAL WATER CRISISWHO CARES?4. WATERAID • The villages of Deyata Dodata and Dewaro are next to each other in central Ethiopia. Yet they are miles apart in terms of access to clean water. • Thanks to WaterAid Deyata has piped water. Dewaro has crude earth-banked ponds that collect water for just six months of the year. • For the other six months of the year the women of Dewaro walk every day 19 kilometres to the nearest source.
WATERAID • WaterAid’s vision is of a world where everyone has access to safe waterand effective sanitation. • WaterAid works in both rural and urban areas, and currently has programmes in 15 countries in Africa and Asia. • Clean water and sanitation are essential for life and all people should have affordable access to them. • Water, sanitation and hygiene education must be integrated to give maximum health benefits • Decision-making must be delegated to local partner organisations and communities as far as possible, to avoid dependency and encourage sustainability • Local people must be actively involved in planning, constructing, managing and maintaining their own projects
WATERAID • Focus should be on the most vulnerable poor people, especially women and children • The technologies used should be appropriate and cost effective • The cost per beneficiary should be kept low • Focusing on long-term development is crucial, but WaterAid will endeavour to respond to natural disasters and emergency situations in the places where it works • It is appropriate to seek support and approval from local and national authorities for WaterAid-funded
WATERAID PROJECTS Case 1: A people's project • The Hitosa gravity scheme is seen as one of WaterAid's most successful projects in the country. It is part of the largest water supply project in Ethiopia constructed by more than 60,000 people in 31 communities, who now all have safe water close to their homes. • Haji Hamada from Ada Shaki village explained 'I am excavating the trench with my community to get safe water. I have four children and we all have severe problems with water. We used to walk for two hours to the ponds or stream. Now we are very happy. I have been involved in collecting the money, and paid 45 birr (£4.50) towards the project. Each family pays and is given five metres of trench to dig. I hope to finish it in two hours.‘
WATERAID PROJECTS • Case 2: Improving health • Sister Marta Asefa works for WaterAid teaching health and hygiene to rural communities. 'Before I joined WaterAid I was a nurse and most of the patients we saw suffered from water related diseases.' 'Now I teach people about hygiene and sanitation. I ask them about diseases in their village and teach them how to stay healthy. I tell them about the importance of clean water and latrines, how to look after their children and clean the compounds. For example if a child has scabies, I tell them they should wash their children and clothes regularly to avoid this skin disease. I like teaching people so they can control their own health and not have any diseases. If they listen, they will be healthier and be able to save money that they normally spend on medicines.'
WATERAID IN ETHIOPIA • Ethiopia, the fourth largest country in Africa, is one of the poorest and driest that WaterAid works in. It is very mountainous and most of the population live in scattered rural communities on the temperate fertile plateau in the centre and south of the country. • Only 24% of the population have access to safe water supplies and only 15% have adequate sanitation. This makes Ethiopia among the lowest in the world with respect to access to safe water and sanitation. Water related diseases are rife and health services are limited. • Reports indicate that the lack of safe drinking water is probably the single most important cause of preventable diseases among the Ethiopian population. Collecting water from long distances, especially during the dry season, contributes significantly to the drudgery of household chores and burden on women members of households. These household chores divert scarce family labour, time and energy away from productive activities that would otherwise increase production and thereby household income and food security. • To date over 625,000 people have benefited from WaterAid projects in Ethiopia. • In 1995 WaterAid helped establish Water Action, a local NGO, that is now seen as an established major player in the country's water and sanitation sector. • Since 1998 WaterAid has provided 10,000 people in the slums of Addis Ababa with sanitation facilities and cheaper, safe water supplies.
WORLD WATER DAY 22 MARCH • Buckets of pennies for buckets of water • World Water Day, 22 March, is day designated by the UN to consider world water issues. You can help make a difference this World Water Day by collecting buckets of pennies which WaterAid can help turn in to buckets of safe clean drinking water for people living in Africa and Asia.
THE THIRD WORLD WATER FORUM Time to act on global water crisis: forum March 17 2003 By Claire Miller • The Third World Water Forum opened yesterday with a consensus that it was long past time to act on the global crisis in water security. But uncertainty prevails about the best ways to promote more efficient use of the resource and bring clean water and sanitation to another 700 million people. • About 1.4 billion people do not have access to clean water and 2.3 billion lack adequate sanitation. Those two factors contribute to seven million deaths a year from water-borne diseases, including the deaths of 2.2 million children. • A commitment to halve the numbers denied clean water and sanitation by 2015 was one of the few concrete targets to come out of last year's United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg.