the arctic water cycle l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Arctic Water Cycle PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Arctic Water Cycle

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 21

The Arctic Water Cycle - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

The Arctic Water Cycle. The Arctic Water Cycle. Emma Sage Rebecca Hale Biogeochemistry 2 March 2005. Emma Rebecca Hale 1 March 2005. Photograph © Michael Hambrey. The Game Plan. Global and Arctic Water Cycles Ice Sheets Primary controls on the water cycle – global and Arctic

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

The Arctic Water Cycle

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the arctic water cycle

The Arctic Water Cycle

The Arctic Water Cycle

Emma Sage

Rebecca Hale


2 March 2005


Rebecca Hale

1 March 2005

Photograph © Michael Hambrey

the game plan
The Game Plan
  • Global and Arctic Water Cycles
  • Ice Sheets
  • Primary controls on the water cycle – global and Arctic
  • Field Methods and Modeling: how we figure it all out
  • “In nature there are neither rewards nor punishments, there are consequences.” – Robert Green Ingersoll
  • Discussion
the global water cycle4
The Global Water Cycle
  • Global and Arctic Water Cycles

The Arctic Water Cycle

arctic ice sheets
Arctic Ice Sheets

Arctic Rivers and Watersheds

what drives the water cycle
What Drives the Water Cycle?
  • Precipitation  solar radiation, Hadley cells, wind patterns, all those good things we talked about with Laura and Julie.
  • Ice  wind! air temperature, ocean temperature, ocean currents, pressure oscillations
  • Ocean currents  salinity, river discharge, temperature
  • River discharge  temperature, arctic ice/glaciers, human modifications
some really cool big patterns
Some Really Cool Big Patterns
  • Arctic Oscillation – atmospheric pressure see-saw between upper and middle northern (~45N) latitudes
  • North Atlantic Oscillation – related to the AO, similar seesaw of pressure between Iceland and subtropical Atlantic
  • Debate whether these are part of the same mode or whether they are different.
  • Time scales of these are debatable –paleoclimate studies show that neither seem to have had set schedules in the past, but they change about every 10 to 40 years
    • Right now both are in positive phases
arctic ice sheets9
Arctic Ice Sheets
  • Positive AO
  • Low pressure over arctic
  • NegativeAO
  • High pressure over arctic

Arctic Oscillation

- some effects -

Pacific Decadal Oscillation – major source of variability in sea surface temperature lasting 20-30 years.
    • Since 1990s has begun to go back into cool phase.

Warm phase

Cool phase

these pressure and temperature oscillations
These Pressure and Temperature Oscillations…
  • Control currents of air  positive AO creates strong wind current circling the Arctic
    • Effects on ice
  • affect the heating and cooling of the ocean and therefore…
  • Thermohaline Circulation!
    • Circulation of ocean water based on temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline)
    • Temperature and salinity determine density of sea water and cause sinking and upwelling
changes in the arctic cycle
Changes in the Arctic Cycle
  • AO and NAO have been in long positive cycles
    • caused by increases in GHG?
  • Surface air temperatures are increasing  accelerate water cycle
  • Increase in freshwater discharge to Arctic
  • Increase in cloud cover
  • Ice thinning
  • Changes in precipitation

Spring Cloud Fraction of Arctic Seas


research questions
Research Questions
  • Atlantic hydrologic sensitivity parameter (HSP)
    • Determines how thermohaline circulation will change as freshwater discharge increases
    • Freshwater discharge (Eurasian) expected to increase 18-70% in response to 1.4-5.8°C SAT increase
  • Arctic ice – what’s causing changes in thickness and extent?
  • How are the AO/NAO and greenhouse gases related?
  • How will ocean currents change? Three modes of ocean currents discussed by Taylor (1999)
our questions for you
Our Questions for You!
  • We want you to speculate some effects of the following scenarios. Be creative: effects on ocean/wind currents, migration patterns, Arctic ice, economics, human society, etc.
    • Global warming causes almost total melting of the Arctic ice sheet
    • Greenhouse gases push AO into permanent positive phase
    • Global temperatures increase and cause two-fold increase in freshwater discharge to Arctic Ocean