practical psychology of hostage and crisis negotiation laurence miller phd n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGY OF HOSTAGE AND CRISIS NEGOTIATION laurence Miller, phd PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGY OF HOSTAGE AND CRISIS NEGOTIATION laurence Miller, phd

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 185

PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGY OF HOSTAGE AND CRISIS NEGOTIATION laurence Miller, phd - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 715 Views
  • Uploaded on

PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGY OF HOSTAGE AND CRISIS NEGOTIATION laurence Miller, phd. PRINCIPLES OF CRISIS INTERVENTION. The best form of crisis intervention is crisis prevention. All successful crisis intervention involves crisis prevention . The principles of crisis intervention are universal.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGY OF HOSTAGE AND CRISIS NEGOTIATION laurence Miller, phd


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGY OF HOSTAGE AND CRISIS NEGOTIATIONlaurence Miller, phd Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    2. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    3. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    4. PRINCIPLES OF CRISIS INTERVENTION The best form of crisis intervention is crisis prevention. All successful crisis intervention involves crisis prevention. The principles of crisis intervention are universal. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    5. 20/20 Hindsight = 20/20 Insight = 20/20 Foresight! Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    6. TYPES OF PREVENTION • Primary Prevention • Secondary Prevention • Tertiary Prevention Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    7. BASIC CRISIS INTERVENTION MODEL • Define the problem. • Ensure safety. • Provide support. • Examine alternatives. • Practical supports. • Coping mechanisms. • Make a plan. • Short- and long-term plans. • Obtain commitment. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    8. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN LAW ENFORCEMENT • Majority of patrol time in routine citizen contact. • Reduction in call-backs to family disturbances. • Improved handling of “hot calls.” • Reduced need for physical force. • It’s all about repeat customers. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    9. BASIC COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT • Allow venting(not spewing). • Modulate voice. • Show concern. • Respond calmly. • Change the subject. • Use note-taking. • Use body language. • Get basic information. • Move person physically. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    10. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PROCESSES • Paralanguage. • Active listening. • Kinesics. • Proxemics. • Intimate space. • Personal space. • Social space. • Public space. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    11. HISTORY OF HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION • Prior to 1973: • Walk away. • Manpower and firepower. • Communication skills of individual officer. • 1970s: • International terrorism. • Domestic civil disturbances and political violence. • 1972 – Munich. • 1973 – Stockholm. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    12. HISTORY OF HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION • Dr. Harvey Schlossberg, NYPD (1979): • View hostage scenario as crisis for the HT. • Contain & negotiate. • Understand HT’s motivation & personality. • “Dynamic inactivity:” Slow down incident & put time on your side. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    13. HOSTAGE CRISES: FACTS & STATS • Only 18% of law enforcement crises deal with actual hostage-taking. • Most dangerous periods: • First 15-45 minutes. • Tactical assault. • Surrender. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    14. HOSTAGE CRISES: FACTS & STATS • 52% of hostage incidents involve HTs with a diagnosed mental disorder. Most common diagnoses: • Paranoia. • Depression. • Antisocial Personality disorder. Anger + Depression + Paranoia = DANGER! Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    15. HOSTAGE CRISES: FACTS & STATS • Assaults = 78% injury or death rate. • Sniper fire = 100% injury or death rate. • Containment and negotiation = 90-95% success rate. • Crisis teams with a mental health consultant are rated more effective. • Police departments rate negotiation communication training as most valuable skills used by negotiators. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    16. TYPES OF HOSTAGE CRISES • Planned operational hostage scenario. • Criminals plan to use hostages in “big-score” heist. • Prisoners use hostages in an escape attempt or to force demands. • Hostages are taken as part of workplace violence scenario. • Planned ideological hostage scenario. • Political or religious terrorists seize hostages to force demands. • Miscalculated robbery. • Criminals are trapped with inadvertent hostages. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    17. TYPES OF HOSTAGE CRISES • Escalating domestic crisis. • Family member barricades self and others. • Family member plans display suicide or homicide. • Escalating routine police encounter. • Disgruntled citizen escalates street or traffic encounter. • Mentally disordered hostage taker. • Psychotic subject seizes hostages as part of delusional system. • Hostage scenario is really suicide or suicide-by-cop. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    18. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL HOSTAGE NEGOTIATORS Cognitive Skills: • Insightfulness. • General Intelligence. • Practical, “street-wise” intelligence. • Logical thinking. • Clear thinking. • Abstract thinking. • Verbal fluency. • Imaginative and creative problem-solving. • Ambiguity tolerance. • Total commitment to the negotiating approach. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    19. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL HOSTAGE NEGOTIATORS Personality/Temperament: • Decisiveness. • Self-control. • Assertiveness • Determination. • Success-orientation. • Self-confidence. • Self-reliance. • Persistence. • Frustration tolerance. • Truthfulness. • Perceptive/intuitive: can “read” others. • Can use “constructive manipulation.” • Comfortable in leadership role, but can be team player. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    20. CRISIS RESPONSE TEAM STRUCTURE • Different structures for different departmental needs. • Team Leader. • On-Scene Commander. • Primary Negotiator. • Secondary Negotiator(s). • Intelligence Officer. • Communications Officer. • Tactical Team (SWAT, Marksmen) • Mental Health Clinician. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    21. CRISIS RESPONSE TEAM: ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGIST • Team development and training. • Expertise in human behavior. • Selection of negotiators. • Training in psychological aspects of crisis management and hostage negotiation. • Organizational development and team-building. • Address liability issues. • Enhance police department image. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    22. CRISIS RESPONSE TEAM: ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGIST • Operational assistance. • Psychological profiling of HTs. • Monitor progress of negotiations. • Advise on negotiation strategies. • Assess risk and danger level. • Advise on tactical decisions. • Monitor mental status of negotiators. • Debrief negotiating team. • Doc – know your place. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    23. HOSTAGE CRISES: HIGH-RISK CONTEXTUAL FACTORS • Hostage is known to and/or deliberately selected by HT. • Past history of problems between HT and victim have required police response. • Past history of other impulsive, aggressive acts. • Multiple life stressors. • Lack of family or social support. • Cultural background condemning “loss of face.” • Diagnosed mental illness. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    24. HOSTAGE CRISES: HIGH-RISK SITUATIONAL FACTORS • Expressions of hopelessness and helplessness. • Verbalized intent to commit suicide. • Making a verbal will – “setting affairs in order.” • No substantive demands. • Direct threats to hostages. • Injury to hostages. • Test-firing of weapon or other deliberately provocative action. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    25. SW,E? Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    26. CRISIS RESPONSE: BASIC PROTOCOL • Subject(s) contained and perimeter secured. • Tactical team deployed. • Communication established with subject. • Intelligence gathering. • Scene control. • Traffic. • Medical response. • Media. • Community. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    27. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: FIRST RESPONDER ACTIONS • Ensure officer and public safety. • Get information. • Use calming and distracting techniques. • Avoid soliciting demands. • Sidestep expressed demands. • Reassure: no frontal assaults. • Minimize seriousness thus far. • Avoid deception. • “Help is on the way.” Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    28. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: GENERAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES • Open with introduction and statement of purpose. • Inquire about medical needs. • Inquire about welfare of all parties. • Speak slowly and calmly. • Minimize background distractions. • Avoid unnecessary profanity. • Focus on HT, not hostages. • Ask what HT likes to be called; when in doubt, address respectfully. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    29. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: GENERAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES • If not sure what HT is saying, ask for clarification. • Downplay HT’s actions thus far. • Adapt conversation to HT’s vocabulary level. • Strive for honesty and credibility. • Be supportive about outcome. • Compliment HT for positive actions. • Allow venting, but deflect escalation. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    30. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: VERBAL COMMUNICATION TACTICS • Concerned, caring, interested attitude. • Reasonable problem-solver. • Buddy-fellow traveler. • Det. Columbo: dumb but trying. • Firm, accepting-directing. • Nonjudgmental and helpful. • Compassionate but competent. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    31. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: VERBAL COMMUNICATION TACTICS • Reinforce appropriate behavior. • “Authentic chameleon” – be flexible. • Avoid: • Arguments. • Power plays. • Moralizing. • Diagnosing. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    32. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS Active listening techniques comprise the fundamental skillset for any kind of crisis intervention. They are multipurpose communication tools that can be effectively applied to a wide range of routine and emergency scenarios, from psychotherapy, to business negotiation, to hostage and crisis intervention. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    33. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS • Emotion Labeling. • Paraphrasing. • Reflecting/Mirroring • Minimal Encouragers. • Silence. • “I” Messages. • Open-Ended Questions. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    34. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS: EMOTION LABELING • Don’t rush to problem-solve. • Respond to emotion, not content. • Demonstrate that you are listening and tuned in. • Don’t worry about mistakes. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    35. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS: EMOTION LABELING • Be alert for: • Missing emotions. • Conflicting emotions. • Inappropriate emotions. • Examples: • “You sound.....” • “You seem.....” • “I hear.....” Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    36. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS: PARAPHRASING • Creates empathy and rapport: “I’m really hearing you.” • Clarifies and highlights important issues. • Encourages subject to slow down and listen. • Promotes verbal give-and-take. • Doesn’t put subject on the defensive. • Hearing one’s own thoughts aloud provides clarification and a new perspective. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    37. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS: PARAPHRASING • Summarize in your own words what the subject has just told you. • Be careful not to add or embellish. • Structure paraphrases in a way that solicits confirmation of the subject’s thoughts and/feelings. • Examples: • “Are you telling me....?” • “What I hear you saying is....” • “Let me see if I have this right....” • “So....” Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    38. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS: REFLECTING/MIRRORING • Solicits more input without actually asking. • Fills time: allows negotiator to collect thoughts and plan further interventions. • Encourages subject to think about what he or the negotiator has said. • Repeat the last word or phrase, or a key word or phrase, that the subject has said, and put a question mark after it. • For example: • Subject: “I’m getting really pissed off at being taken advantage of.” • Negotiator: “You’re pissed off?” Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    39. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS: MINIMAL ENCOURAGERS • Lets subject know the negotiator is listening, but doesn’t interfere with flow of subject’s narrative. • Builds rapport and encourages further communication. • Minimal encouragers: sounds or words expressing attention and interest: • “Oh?” • “I see.” • “Yeah.” • “Uh-huh.” • “When? • “Really?” • “You do?” Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    40. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS: SILENCE & PAUSES • Buys time. • Forces subject to fill time with talk: usually advantageous to keep subject talking. • Silence serves to emphasize a point made by: • the hostage-taker. • the negotiator. • Combine silence with minimal encouragers. • Combine silence with other active listening techniques. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    41. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS: “I” MESSAGES • Lets subject know how he’s making negotiator feel and what he can do to affect the situation. • Conveys information in a non-threatening manner. • Does not put subject on the defensive. • Helps defuse intense emotions. • Helps counteract subject’s manipulations. • Helps refocus subject during verbal attacks. • “I feel...when you...because...” Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    42. ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS: OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS • Encourages subject to say more without the negotiator actually directing the conversation. • Cannot be answered with a simple yes or no. • Obtain information with fewer questions. • Help subject start talking. • Combine with closed-ended questions. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    43. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: INTELLIGENCE & INFORMATION-GATHERING • Intelligence gathering is joint responsibility of tactical unit and negotiating team.  • Ultimate success of hostage negotiation often depends on intelligence gathering and dissemination of information. • Selective intelligence gathering: not too much or too little. • Rapid information gathering and analysis.  • Reduce data to writing as soon as possible. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    44. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: INTELLIGENCE & INFORMATION-GATHERING • Types of intelligence data: • Past and present relationships. • Previous aggressive or criminal acts. • Modus operandi. • HT alone or with collaborators. • Weapons. • Unusual demands. • Special traits, habits, behaviors. • Medical and/or psychiatric diagnoses. • Social ideologies, religious beliefs. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    45. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: DEMANDS • Don’t ask for demands. • Don’t offer anything. • Don’t dismiss any demand as trivial. • Use demands as profiling tool. • Never say no(never?). • Not saying no is not the same as saying yes. • Don’t give anything not specifically asked for. • Don’t give more than absolutely necessary to fulfill the agreement. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    46. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: DEMANDS • Don’t give anything without getting something in return. • First negotiate for sick or injured hostages. • Let HT make the first offer of how many hostages are released. • If only demand is to die, tactical response may be imminent. • Be careful about suggesting alternatives: • Paranoid subject may fear control. • Imbue negotiator with too much power. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    47. NEGOTIABLE & NON-NEGOTIABLE DEMANDS • Negotiable Demands. • Food. • Drinks. • Cigarettes. • Environmental controls. • Alcohol (?) • Media coverage (?) • Transportation (?) • Money (?) • Freedom (?) Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    48. NEGOTIABLE & NON-NEGOTIABLE DEMANDS • Non-Negotiable Demands.  • Weapons. • Drugs. • Release of prisoners. • Exchange of hostages. • “Gray areas”? Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    49. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: DEADLINES & TIME • Very few deaths have occurred as a result of deadlines. • Deaths prior to the start of negotiations “don’t count” for tactical intervention. • Don’t set deadlines. • Log HT’s deadlines. • Ignore HT’s deadlines. • Talk through deadlines. • If no contact, call HT prior to deadline and initiate distracting conversation. Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation

    50. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION: DEADLINES & TIME • Time upside: generally, the more time passed without injury, the better the outcome. • Time downside: longer incident = greater mental and physical exhaustion = poorer judgment and greater impulsivity. • Use time to expend adrenalin and wear down HT, but beware of total exhaustion. • Never take action just to “do something.” Dr. Laurence Miller: Practical Psychology of Hostage & Crisis Negotiation