Lexicology. Linguistics. Phonetics Phonology Morphology Lexicology Semantics Syntax. Topics for lexicology. Historical change Change of form Change of pronunciation Change of meaning Change of word formation Word origins The word-formation Idioms Dictionaries
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Period of full inflections
feeldes(fields): failed us (Middle English)
each idea expressed in a separate word or morpheme; words tend to be monosyllabic
words made of multiple syllables; each syllable has meaning e.g., Turkish. For example, ev (house), evler (houses), evlerde (in the houses), evlerden (from the houses)
major sentence elements incorporated into single word e.g., Inuktitut (Eskimo): Qasuiirsarvigssarsingitluinarnarpuq means "Someone did not find a completely suitable resting place"
an alteration in or addition to a form of a word to indicate such things as case, gender, number, mood, and tense; one fusional affix may mark several grammatical categories at the same time, e.g., Latin & Old English
-os, -ate, -us
-eme : meaningful
[j] [ε] [n]
<g> <e> <n>
positional allomorphs of the same suffix
hood: condition or state
eg. amoral, asexual, asymmetry, anarchy, aseptic, anhydrous
eg. dishonest, disjoint, disloyal, disunity, disuse (n.) disbenefit, disambiguate
incomplete, inconsistent, incorrect, insane, inattention, illiterate, illogical, imbalanced, immortal, irrational, irrelavant
Note: less common than un-
non-U(adj): (BrE.)not of the upper class
non-scientific: fields other than science
unscientific: not scientific
unbook: a book bought not to be used but to be given as a present
unpeople: people in lack of humanity and individuality
unperson: a political or public figure who has lost the influence or importance
pseudonym: an invented name
pseudoscience: pretended science
pseudoclassic: pretending to be classic
ante-, fore-, neo-, post-, pre-, pro-,re-
anti-, auto--, co-, con-, vice-
Lord: loaf (bread) warden (guardian)
shoemaker, washing machine, bookkeeper, candlelight
ice cream, sweetheart
smog: smoke+ frog
By any other name would smell as sweet” ---Shakespere: Romeo and Juliet
The ice was all around:
It cracked and growled, and roared and howled,
Like noises in a swound
-able, read: readable
a stony heart
the leg of a table
(figurative usage, mental association)
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe
---”Jabberwock” of Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking Glass (1871)
(6) This is unknown country (a branch of learning) to me.
-*I’ve nearly completed
e.g. forgive (a verb of cognition taking a human subject)
e.g. elapse (a verb taking a class of nouns referring to time as its subject)
e.g. window, cloud, kindness
e.g. man [+Human+Adult+Male], only from the biological point of view
e.g. threaten (taking animate object)
to threaten one’s enemy
to threaten one’s security
a. part of the human body beyond the wrist
b. keeping, possession
The property is no longer in my hands.
c. influence or agency
The hand of our opponent has been at work here.
d. person or source from which something comes
I got the news at first hand.
She has a light hand at pastry.
f. person who does
He is a new hand.
The factory has taken on 200 extra hands.
h. turn, share in an activity
Let me have a hand now.
i. a thing like a hand
The hour hand of the clock is broken.
j. side or direction
This is an disadvantage on every hand/ on all hands.
He writes a good hand.
He set his hand to a document.
m. cards dealt to a player
You have a good hand.
n. member of a group of card-players
We have only three players, and we need a fourth hand.
o. one game in a rubber at cards
Shall we play one more hand?
He is a wonderful performer. Let’s give him a big hand
A piece of timber
----Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens
C. Homographs: words identical in spelling but different in sound and meaning, such as lead/lead, sow/sow, tear/tear, prayer/prayer, sewer/sewer
A. phonetic convergence
Old Norse ras
ea /e:/ (in Shakespeare’s time)---
/i:/ (in present-day English)
bean/been, beat/beet, flea/flee, heal/heel, read/reed, sea/see, seam/seem, steal/steel
B. Semantic divergence
“Homonymy can also be brought about through diverging sense development. When two or more meanings of the same word drift apart to such an extent that there will be no obvious connection between them, polysemy will give place to homonymy” (Ullmann 1977:177) It is quite difficult to say where polysemy ends and homonymy begins.
flour/flower, metal/mettle, mantle/mantel, gate/gait, sole/sole, to long/long
C. Foreign influence
fair: attractive, beautiful, lovely (OE)
fair: a gathering of people held at regular intervals for barter and sale of goods (L, holiday)
sound: healthy, not diseased or injured or rotten (OE)
sound: sensation caused in ear by vibration of surrounding air (OF, L)
sound: test depth or quality of bottom of (sea, channel, pond, etc.) (ME, OF)
sound: arm of sea; narrow passage of water connecting two seas or sea with lake, etc. (OE sund, ON sund swimming strait)
Homomyms may also be created by the word-formation process of clipping.
pop (popular)/pop (to thrust, to push)
rock( rock’n’roll)/rock (stone forming part of the earth’s surface)
hood (hoodlum)/hood (a covering for the whole of the head and neck)
------Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, harsh Jew, Thou make’st thy knife keen.
The Merchant of Venice (Act IV, Scene 1)
-----“On Sunday they pray for you and on Monday they prey on you.” (王佐良，《英语文体学论文集》)
----“ How is bread made?”
----“You take some flour……”
----“Where do you pick the flower? In a garden or in the hedges?
-----“Well, it isn’t picked at all, it’s ground…..”
-----“How many acres of ground?”
Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland)
mother tongue--native language
the widest sense of a word
anger, rage, fury, indignation, wrath
cf. to die, to pass away, to kick the bucket
to chide, to berate, to scold, to blame, to carpet, to tell off, to bawl out
Negro, nigger, black; thrifty, miserly, niggardly, frugal; bravery, foolhardiness; firm, pigheaded;
pretty (girl, child, flower, garden, color, village, cottage)
handsome (boy, man , car, table, overcoat, airliner, house)
a flock of sheep, a herd of elephants, a shoal of fish, a swarm of bees; to sail a small boat, to navigate a liner; rancid butter (bacon), addled eggs (brains)
He is the greatest living scientist.
He is the greatest scientist alive.
Q: sleeping, asleep
sick and ill, sidewalk and pavement, gas and petrol, movie and film, elevator and lift, can and tin, mail and post, railroad and railway, call box and telephone booth, taxi stand and cab rank, muffler and silencer, sedan and saloon, ranger and commando
battle, fight (12)
ship, boat (11+16)
ask question interrogate
fast firm secure
fire flame conflagration
rise mount ascend
time age epoch
----A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens
There is a tiger in the cage.
How old are you?
how big/wide/heavy is it?
How tall is he?
Meat Vegetable Fruit
Beef mutton pork cabbage celery spinach apple peach orange
subordinates: to ride, run, walk, fly ,sail;
75 cents: six bits
(She soon got the children ready for school)
(If I get to see him, I’ll ask him about it)
(Get going! Start!)
(I’ll get him to repair my watch.)
“All well,”said Mr.Gills, pushing the bottle towards him. He took it up, and having surveyed and smelt it, said with extraordinary expression:
“THE.” returned the instrument maker. Upon that he whistled as he filled his glass, and seemed to think that they were making a holiday indeed.
*the thing that the word denotes has disappeared
*the existence of synonyms
* the collision of two homonyms
b. some obsolete words survive but different from it original meaning, such as, trident, armour, albeit (all be it, though).
Ascending from the damp savannas,
And quiring angels round him sing
The praise of God, in loud hosannas.”
(quire: choir, T.S. Eliot: The Hippopotamus)
The rapid development of modern science and technology
Political, economic and social changes
A. By word-formation
D. By analogy in which a word derives from the form of another existing word, such as apolune and perilune coming from the words aphelion and perihelion (see p110)
Extension of meaning (Generalization)
d. from technical terms to general words: catalyst
c. from common nouns to proper nouns: the Mediterranean
the three I’s (inflation, interest rate, impeachment)
(5) We have changed several parameters of this problem.
(2) Diamond cut diamond.
(3) The devil takes the hindmost
(4) through thick and thin
(5) ins and outs
(4) To have a bee in one’s bonnet.
(1) A stitch in times saves nine.
(5)A Procrustean bed
(4) He made short work of cleaning the room.( to finish quickly and easily)
(4) part and parcel (a most important part that cannot be separated from the whole of it )
(4) Adverbial phrase idioms
(5) All that glitters is not gold.
(20) The devil take it!