Download
english morphology and lexicology n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
English Morphology and Lexicology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
English Morphology and Lexicology

English Morphology and Lexicology

70 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

English Morphology and Lexicology

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. English Morphology and Lexicology Shaoguangqing@gmail.com www.windofspring.weebly.com

  2. Chapter 8 Meaning and Context • 8.1 Types of context • 1)Extra-linguistic context • 2)Liguistic context • 8.2 The role of context • 1)Elimination of ambiguity • 2)Indication of referents • 3)Provision of clues for inferring word-meaning

  3. Warm-up • Mother: Johnny, go over the road and see how old Mrs Jones is. • (The boy comes back and says…) • Johnny: Mrs Jones says it is none of my business.

  4. Warm-up • She is looking for a match. • The fisherman went to the bank. • The chicken is ready to eat. • Visiting relatives can be boring.

  5. More … • The lady hit the man with an umbrella. • He gave her cat food. • The man saw the boy with the binoculars. • They are hunting dogs. • I told her books were funny. • I love hunting dogs. • Will Will will the will to Will?

  6. Warm-up • Context is very important for the understanding of (word-)meaning because the meaning is influenced immediately by the linguistic context, and in many cases by the whole speech situation as well.

  7. 8.1 Types of context • Linguistic context • Extra-linguistic context (non-linguistic context)

  8. 1) Extra-linguistic context • I do think Adam’s quick. • Quick in developing • Quick to understand/react/see the joke • “Look out!” • Look outside • Be careful Context: speaker; hearer; place; time Situational context

  9. 1) Extra-linguistic context • trade union • Western countries • China • landlord • Chinese culture • Western culture • weekend • Western weekend • Chinese weekend (before May 1, 1995) Cultural contexts

  10. 2) Linguistic context • Lexical context • paper • (a sheet of) paper • (a white) paper • (a term) paper • (today’s) paper • (examination) paper

  11. 2) Linguistic context • Lexical context • do • do (a sum) • do (one’s teeth) • do (the flowers) • do (fish) • do (science at school) • do (a museum/a city/a country)

  12. 2) Linguistic context • Grammatical context • become • become+adj./n. (begin to be) • Become+pron/n. (suit; befit) • become of (happen to, often in a bad way)

  13. 2) Linguistic context • However, there are cases where the meaning of a word may remain a puzzle until a whole paragraph, a chapter or even a whole book is covered. • “Janet! Donkeys!” • “THE?”

  14. 8.2 The role of context • He is a hard businessman. • Context 1: hard-working • Context 2: difficult • He is a hard businessman to deal with. • Elimination of ambiguity • John ran the egg and spoon race. • Participate in • Organize • John ran the egg and spoon race and won second place.

  15. 8.2 The role of context • They saw her duck. • Context 1: n. • Context 2: v. • They saw her duck swimming in the river. • The ball was attractive. • Context 1: • Context 2: • The ball was attractive with nice music and a lot of people.

  16. 8.2 The role of context • The fish is ready to eat. • Context 1: • Context 2: • What a nice smell! The fish is ready to eat. • I like Mary better than Jean. • Context 1: • Context 2: • I like Mary better than Jean does. • I like Mary better than I do Jean.

  17. 8.2 The role of context Indication of referents • Teddie never argues with his father when he’s drunk. • He introduced me to the pilot. He looked after him when he was in hospital. He really did a fine job, and nothing was too much trouble for him.

  18. 8.2 The role of context Indication of referents • When Teddie is drunk, he never argues with his father. • He introduced me to the pilot whom he had looked after in hospital. He really did a fine job, and nothing was too much trouble for him.

  19. 8.2 The role of context Provision of clues for inferring word-meaning • Definition • Perhaps the most startling theory to come out of kinesics, the study of body movement, was suggested by Professor Bird-whistell.

  20. 8.2 The role of context Provision of clues for inferring word-meaning • Explanation • It is just one more incredible result of the development of microprocessors—those tiny parts of a computer commonly known as ‘silicon chips’.

  21. 8.2 The role of context Provision of clues for inferring word-meaning • Example • Many United Nations employees are polyglots. Ms. Mary, for example, speaks five languages.

  22. 8.2 The role of context Provision of clues for inferring word-meaning • Synonymy • Their greatest fear was of a conflagration, since fire would destroy their flimsy wooden settlement before help could arrive.

  23. 8.2 The role of context Provision of clues for inferring word-meaning • Antonymy • As the fighting on all fronts reached its peak, the economy neared its nadir.

  24. 8.2 The role of context Provision of clues for inferring word-meaning • Hyponymy • The village had most of the usual amenities; a pub, a library, a post office, a village hall, a medical centre, and a school.

  25. 8.2 The role of context Provision of clues for inferring word-meaning • Relative details • ‘Do get me a clop,’ she said, smacking her lips, but her brother, with a scornful glance up at the branches, said that there were none ripe yet.

  26. 8.2 The role of context Provision of clues for inferring word-meaning • Word structure • Copernicus believed in a heliocentric universe, rather than the geocentric theory.

  27. THANK YOU