Morphology and Lexicology 10035048 정보람
Basic concepts of words and vocabulary Chapter 1 (Page 6 -20)
Contents 1.1 What Is a Word 1.2 Sound and Meaning 1.3 Sound and Form 1.4 Vocabulary 1.5 Classification of Words 1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 1.5.2 Content Words and Functional Words 1.5.3 Native Words and Borrowed Words Questions and Tasks
What Is a Word Elusive notion, which demands careful consideration at the outset Critcria for vocabulary classification Each class of words to some extent
1.1 What Is a Word Can be defined as a meaningful group of letters Unit of meaning Word Be a free form that can function in a sentence Is viewd as a sound or combination of sounds which are made voluntarily with human vocal equipment
1.1 What Is a Word The definition of a word comprises the following points (1) A minimal free form of a language (2) A sound unity (3) A unit of meaning (4) A form that can function alone in a sentence
1.1 What Is a Word Simple Complex Each have sound, meaning, syntactic function. Each can be used alone in a sentence. Both are polysylabic. Both can function as subject, object, predictive(S.C) in a sentence.
1.1 What Is a Word Man Simple Fine Complex Mis / for / tune Mis / fortune Man / age / ment Manage / ment Black / mail Compel, compulsion
Questions and Tasks 1. Which of the following is NOT true? (a) A word is the smallest form of a language (a) A word is the smallest form of a language (b) A word is a sound unity. (c) A word has a given meaning. (d) A word can be used freely in a sentence.
1.2 Sound and Meaning certain sounds will represent certain persons, things, places, properties, processes and activities outside the language system. This symbolic connection is free. There is ‘no logical relationship between the sound and the actual thing and idea itself’
1.2 Sound and Meaning A word is a symbol that stands for something else in the world certain sounds will represent certain persons, things, places, properties, processes and activities outside the language system. This symbolic connection is arbitrary. There is ‘ no logical relationship between the sound and the actual thing and idea itself ’
1.2 Sound and Meaning A dog is called a dog not because the sound and the three letters that make up the word just automatically suggest the animal in question. It is only symbolic. The relationship between them is conventional because people of the same speech community have agreed to refer to the animal with this cluster of sounds.
1.2 Sound and Meaning In different languages the same concept can be represented by different sounds. Example Woman Becomes ‘Frau’ in German ‘Femme’ in French ‘funu’ in Chinese
1.2 Sound and Meaning On the other hand, the same sound [mi:t] is used to mean meet, meat, mete. Example meet, meat, mete. Knight and night, though denoting entirely different things, yet have the same sound.
Questions and Tasks 6. Illustrate the relationship between sound and meaning with examples. This symbolic connection is free (arbitrary). There is ‘no logical relationship between the sound and the actual thing and idea itself’
1.3 Sound and Form Written form of a natural language is the written record of the oral form. Written form should agree with the oral form. The sound should be similar to the form. It is generally agreed and fairly true of English in its earliest stage (Old English)
1.3 Sound and Form The speech of the time was represented very much more faithfully in writing than it is today. With the development of the language, More and more differences occur between the two.
1.3 Sound and Form English alphabet was adopted from the Romans. It does not have a separate letter to represent each sound in the language so that some letters must do double duty or work together in combination.
1.3 Sound and Form The pronunciation has changed more rapidly than spelling over the years, and in some cases the two have drawn far apart. During the last five hundred years, though the sounds of speech have changed considerably, there have been no corresponding changes of spelling.
1.3 Sound and Form Some of the differences were created by the early scribes. In the early days the spelling differences did not matter very much as people were not so used to seeing words in print, and the spelling was not fixed as it is today. Sometimes, people deliberately changed spelling of words either to make a line even or for easier recognition.
1.3 Sound and Form Before the printing press was brought to England, and everything was written by hand. Those scribes, who made a living by writing for other people often worked in haste to meet the needs of the King, Church, and merchants.
1.3 Sound and Form One problem was that several letters written with short vertical strokes such as i , u , v , m , w and n looked all alike. To solve the problem in part, they changed the letter u to o when it came before m, n, or v. sum cum wumanwundermunk some come woman wonder monk
1.3 Sound and Form At some point, too, the scribes seem to have decided that no English word should end in u or v. Thus, in time, an e was added to such words as live, have, due, and true but not pronounced
1.3 Sound and Form In the late 1500, printing became well established. It helped to freeze the spelling of words. Dictionaries did their share in stopping spelling changes. Some British and American scholars have made efforts to reform the English spelling, but with little success.
Questions and Tasks 2. The differences between sound and form are due to The fact of more phonemes than letters in English (b) Stabilization of spelling by printing. (c) Influence of the work of scribes. (d) Innovations made by linguists.
Vocabulary All the words in a language make up its vocabulary.
1.4 Vocabulary - The term ‘vocabulary’ is used in different senses. - It can refer to the total number of the words in a language. - It can stand for all the words used in a particular historical period. - English is one of the world’s highly developed languages. - Naturally the vocabulary is one of the largest and richest.
Questions and Tasks 5. What is vocabulary? The vocabulary of a language is all the words in it. (The English vocabulary consists of words of all kinds.) Not only it can refer to the total number of the words in a language, but it can stand for all the words used in a particular historical period.
Classification of Words The vocabulary can be classified by different criteria and for different purposes.
1.5 Classification of Words Words fall into the basic word stock and nonbasic vocabulary by use frequency, into content words and functional words by notion, and into native words and borrowed words by origin. *word stock : the set of words in a language
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary Though words of the basic word stock constitute a small percentage of the English vocabulary, yet it is the most important part of it. These words have obvious characteristics. All national character (국민성) stability (안정성) Productivity (생산성) Polysemy (다의성) Collocability(연어구성력)
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 1. All national character Words of the basic word stock denote the most common things and phenomena of the world around us, which are indispensable to all the people who speak the language. These words cannot be avoided by any speaker of English, irrespective of class origin, education, profession, geographical regions, culture, etc.
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary These words have obvious characteristics Natural phenomena: rain, snow, fire, water Names of plants and animals: oak, grass, tree, cat, dog Action, size, domain, state: come, go, good, old, white Human body and relations: head, foot, father, son Numerals, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions: one, hundred, I, you, who, in, out, and
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 2. Stability As they denote the commonest things necessary to life, they are likely to remain unchanged. Stability, however, is only relative. Actualy the basic word stock has been undergoing some changes. Words like arrow, bow, knight, which were common in the past, have now moved out of the word stock whereas such words as computer, car, plane, which denote new things and modern way of like, have entered the stock. But this change is slow.
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 3. Productivity Words of the basic word stock are mostly root words or monosyllabic words. They can each be used alone, and at the same time can form new words with other roots and affixes. Foot : football, footer, footfall, footedetc. In the same way, dog is the father of doglike, doghood, dogcart, dogsleep, to name just a few
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 4. Polysemy Words belonging to the basic word stock often possess more than one meaning because most of them have undergone semantic changes in the course of use and become polysemous. Take(verb) : to move or carry from one place to another to perform the actions connected with to test or measure
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 5. Collocability Collocability means the tendency or legitimacy of words to occur together in a collocation. Many words of the basic word stock enter quite a number of set expressions, idiomatic usages, proverbial saying and the like.
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary For example heart a change of heart after one’s heart break one’s heart cry one’s heart out take something to heart with all one’s heart
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary Of course, not all the words of the basic word stock have these characteristics. Pronouns and numerals enjoy nation-wide use and stability, but are semantically monosemous and have limited productivity and collocability. Therefore,‘all national character’ is the most important of all features that may differentiate words of common use from all others.
Questions and Tasks 3. Of the five characteristics listed for the basic word stock, the most important is All national character. All national character. (b) productivity. (c) polysemy. (d) collocability.
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary Words, void of the stated characteristics, do not belong to the common core of the language. Terminology (professional - medical) Jargon (technical term) Slang Argot (은어 part of the slang) Dialectal words (rural area’s words) Archaisms (archaic, old words) Neologisms (new words)
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 1. Terminology Terminology consists of technical terms used in particular disciplines and academic areas as In medicine : hepatitis, penicillin In mathematics : calculus, algebra In music : symphony, orchestra, sonata In education : microteaching, audiovisual
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 2. Jargon Jargon refers to the specialized vocabularies by which members of particular arts, sciences trades and professions communicate among themselves such as In business : bottom line for ‘inescapable implication’ In horse-racing : hold him back for ‘prevent a horse from winning’ In medicine : paranoid for ‘suspicious, worried’
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 3. Slang Slang belongs to the sub-standard language, a category that seems to stand between the standard general words including informal ones available to everyone and in-group words like cant, jargon, and argot, all of which are associated with, or most available to, specific groups of the population. Certain words are labeled ‘slang’ not because of their appearance or pronunciation but because of their usage.
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 3. Slang (example) Dough and bread, for instance, are standard when they are used as food terms but slang in the sense of ‘money’. Beaver(girl), smoky, bear(police), catch(talk to), holler(call), roger(understand), X-rays(radar) are all slang words.
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 3. Slang These examples indicate that much of the slang is created by changing or extending the meaning of existing words though some slang words are new coinages altogether. Almost everyone uses some slang sometimes, and some people use a lot of slang often. As some people claim, slang avoids pretensions. It is ‘language that rolls up its sleeves’ and gets to work.
1.5.1 Basic Word Stock and Nonbasic Vocabulary 4. Argot Argot generally refers to the jargon of criminals. Its use is confined to the sub-cultural groups, and outsiders can hardly understand it. Ex) dip (pick-pocket) persuader (dagger) can-opener (all-purpose key)