English Lexicology Meaning Relations. Week 10 Instructor: Liu Hongyong. We are going to discuss. Words that have the “same” meaning: synonymy Words that have “opposite” meaning: antonymy Hierarchies of meaning: hyponymy and meronymy Meaning and word combination: collocation.
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Instructor: Liu Hongyong
hyponymy and meronymy
There are no such thing as true synonymy.
the top of something
freedom of choice
head: the upper part of the body
a person who leads
adult: [+human, +adult]
grown-up: [+human, +adult]
Denotative meaning is the same, but the stylistic meaning is different. Can they be called synonyms?
John found/discovered the basketball in the grass.
Maria Curie discovered radium in 1898.
*Maria Curie found radium in 1898.
discover: be the first one to come across something
find: experience something in some way
These pairs are called gradable antonyms because they do not represent a more/less relation. The words can be the end-points of a continuum (连续体).
Since they are gradable, they allow comparison.
These pairs are called contradictory antonyms because they represent an either/or relation.
If you permitsome behavior, then it is not forbidden.
Since they are not gradable, they do not allow comparison.
behind in front of
Lend is the converse of borrowand vice versa; i.e. the substitution of one member for the other does not change the meaning of a sentence if it is accompanied by the change of subject and object.
John lent Mary five dollars.
Mary borrowed five dollars from John.
Converse antonyms are relational antonyms.
The bridge is above the river.
The river is below the bridge.
This behavior is allowed.
This behavior is notprohibited.
Mary is John’s wife. John is Mary’s husband.
?？Mary is not John’s husband.
I allow you to introduce Mary.
*You forbidden me to introduce Mary.
Contradictory antonyms are either/or antonym.
I don’t forbidden you to introduce Mary.
We are not going to have any food today.
We are not going to have any vegetables today.
They are subordinate terms. They are hyponyms of the superordinate term FOOD.
They are subordinate terms. They are hyponyms of the superordinate term MEAT.
Reading from the bottom of the hierarchy, ORANGE is a ‘kind of’ fruit, which is a kind of food.
An arm is part of a body;
A wheel is part of a car.
排球队员 (volleyball player)
Hyponyms of ??? 【kind-of】
Meronyms of ??? 【part-of】
I will boil a kettle.
Is the kettle boiling now?
A word has the syntagmatic relation with its neighboring words. It is a kind of collocation relation.
A word has the paradigmatic relation with other words which can be used in the same position in a sentence. It is a kind of substitution relation.