introduction to group dynamics l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction to Group Dynamics PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction to Group Dynamics

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

Introduction to Group Dynamics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 916 Views
  • Uploaded on

Introduction to Group Dynamics. Groups, groups, groups. The Impressionists: a group of painters The 1980 Olympic Hockey team: a team The Andes Rugby Team: a group of survivors Jobs vs. Sculley: Two executives The Apollo 13 crew: 3 astronauts Questions to consider . Overview.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Introduction to Group Dynamics' - Leo


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
groups groups groups
Groups, groups, groups

The Impressionists: a group of painters

The 1980 Olympic Hockey team: a team

The Andes Rugby Team: a group of survivors

Jobs vs. Sculley: Two executives

The Apollo 13 crew: 3 astronauts

Questions to consider 

overview
Overview

What is a group?

What are some common characteristics of groups?

What assumptions guide researchers in their studies of groups and the processes within groups?

What fields and what topics are included in the scientific study of group dynamics?

what is a group
What is a Group?

Definition of a group:

Two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships.

two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships
Two or more individualswho are connected to one another by social relationships.
  • Size: dyads and triads to large collectives (this class, mobs, audiences)
two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships6
Two or more individualswho are connected to one anotherby social relationships.
  • Connected: members are linked, networked
two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships7
Two or more individuals who are connected to one anotherby social relationships.

Social, interpersonal connection: not categorical only

slide8

Types of groups

Billions of groups in the world, but they can be classified into basic categories, or clusters

Cooley (1907) drew a distinction between primary and secondary groups

slide9

Type of Group

Characteristics

Examples

Primary groups

Small, long-term groups characterized by face-to-face interaction and high levels of cohesiveness, solidarity, and member identification

Families, close friends, tight-knit peer groups, gangs, elite military squads

Secondary groups

Larger, less intimate, more goal-focused groups typical of more complex societies

Congregations, work groups, unions, professional associations

(Cooley, 1907)

slide10

Types of groups

Cooley (1907)

primary

secondary

Arrow and her colleagues offer a more fine-grained analysis

planned vs. emergent

Concocted

Founded

Circumstantial

Self-organizing

slide11

Type of Group

Characteristics

Examples

Planned groups

Deliberately formed by the members themselves or by an external authority, usually for some specific purpose or purposes

Concocted

Planned by individuals or authorities outside the group.

Production lines, military units, task forces, crews, professional sports teams

Founded

Planned by one or more individuals who remain within the group

Study groups, small businesses, expeditions, clubs, associations

Emergent groups

Groups that form spontaneously as individuals find themselves repeatedly interacting with the same subset of individuals over time and settings

Circumstantial

Emergent, unplanned groups that arise when external, situational forces set the stage for people to join together, often only temporarily, in a unified group

Waiting lines (queues), crowds, mobs, audiences, bystanders

Self-organizing

Emerge when interacting individuals gradually align their activities in a cooperative system of interdependence.

Study groups, friendship cliques in a workplace, regular patrons at a bar

slide12
Perceiving groups: people intuitively draw distinctions between groups—some look groupier than others

Lickel, Hamilton, Sherman, and their colleagues asked people to rate many kinds of aggregations on a scale from 1 (not at all a group) to 9 (very much a group).

slide13

Type of Group

Characteristics

Examples

Intimacy groups

Small groups of moderate duration and permeability characterized by substantial levels of interaction among the members, who value membership in the group

Families, romantic couples, close friends, street gangs

Task groups

Work groups in employment settings and goal-focused groups in a variety of nonemployment situations

Teams, neighborhood associations

Weak associations

Aggregations of individuals that form spontaneously, last only a brief period of time, and have very permeable boundaries

Crowds, audiences, clusters of bystanders

Social categories

Aggregations of individuals who are similar to one another in terms of gender, ethnicity, religion, or nationality.

Women, Asian Americans, physicians, U.S. citizens, New Yorkers

slide14

What are some common characteristics of groups?

Interaction: task and relationship

Interdependence: sequential, reciprocal, mutual

slide16
Structure: roles, norms, relations

Goals: generating, choosing, negotiating, executing

Common characteristics of groups (continued)

McGrath’s Taxonomy of Group Tasks is based on 2 key dimensions: Choosing vs. Executing (Doing) and Generating vs. Negotiating

slide18
Cohesion: unity and entitativity

Entitativity is perceived groupness

Campbell’s theory of entitativity

common fate

similarity

proximity

Common characteristics of groups (continued)

what assumptions guide researchers in their studies of groups and the processes within groups
What assumptions guide researchers in their studies of groups and the processes within groups?

Group dynamics describes both:

  • Interpersonal processes in groups
  • The scientific study of groups and group processes (Kurt Lewin)
level of analysis
Level of Analysis

Individual level: focus on the individual (psychological)

Group level: focus on the group and social context (sociological)

Multilevel: adopts multiple perspectives on groups

the paradigm assumptions and orientations
The Paradigm: assumptions and orientations

Groups are real

Group processes are real

  • groupmind, collective conscious
  • Sherif's (1936) study of norm formation
slide23

Person A

Convergence

Person B

Person C

Average distance

estimates

Alone

Group

Session 1

Group

Session 2

Group

Session 3

assumptions continued
Assumptions (continued)
  • Groups are more than the sum of their parts
    • Lewin's (1951) field theory: behavior is a function of the person and the environment
    • B = f(P, E).
slide25
Groups are living systems: Tuckman's (1965) theory of group development

forming

storming

norming

performing

adjourning

Assumptions (continued)

slide26

Performing

Task

Norming

Storming

Adjourning

Forming

assumptions continued27
Assumptions (continued)
  • Groups are influential
  • Groups shape society
what fields and what topics are included in the scientific study of group dynamics
What fields and what topics are included in the scientific study of group dynamics?

Interdisciplinary: psychology, sociology, political science, anthropology, business, etc.

slide29

Discipline

Topics

Anthropology

Groups in cross-cultural contexts; societal change; social and collective identities

Business and Industry

Work motivation; productivity; team building; goal setting; focus groups

Clinical/Counseling Psychology

Therapeutic change through groups; sensitivity training; training groups; self-help groups; group psychotherapy

Communication

Information transmission in groups; discussion; decision making; problems in communication; networks

Criminal Justice

Organization of law enforcement agencies; gangs; jury deliberations

Education

Classroom groups; team teaching; class composition and educational outcomes

Political Science

Leadership; intergroup and international relations; political influence; power

Psychology

Personality and group behavior; problem solving; perceptions of other people; motivation; conflict

Social Work

Team approaches to treatment; family counseling; groups and adjustment

Sociology

Self and society; influence of norms on behavior; role relations; deviance

Sports and Recreation

Team performance; effects of victory and failure; cohesion and performance

slide30
Action research: integrates basic and applied research.

Topics: group formation, cohesion, structure, influence, performance, conflict, etc.

slide31

Introduction to Group Dynamics

Research Methods

Individual and the Group

Group Formation

Power

Cohesion and Development

Structure

Influence

Performance

Decision Making

Leadership

Conflict

Collective Behavior

Intergroup Relations

Groups in Context

Groups and Change

group dynamics
Group Dynamics!

… the "field of inquiry dedicated to advancing knowledge about the nature of groups"

(Cartwright & Zander, 1968, p. 7).

for more information visit http psychology wadsworth com forsyth4e

For more information visit http://psychology.wadsworth.com/forsyth4e