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Mindanao and the Bangsamoro: Prospects for Peace. I. Historical Foundations of the Bangsamoro Struggle. Bangsamoro ("the Moro People") 13-ethnolinguistic Muslim tribes in the Philippines Comprising about 5% of the Philippine population and around 20% of the population in Mindanao. .

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slide2

I. Historical Foundations of the Bangsamoro Struggle

  • Bangsamoro ("the Moro People")
  • 13-ethnolinguistic Muslim tribes in the Philippines
  • Comprising about 5% of the Philippine population and around 20% of the population in Mindanao.
who are the muslims in the philippines
WHO ARE THE MUSLIMS IN THE PHILIPPINES?
  • consist of 13 ethno-linguistic groups
  • distributed according to their respective geographical locations. The first three are the largest groups.
      • Maranao - Lanao del Sur
      • Maguindanao - Maguindanao Province and Cotabato
      • Tausug - Sulu
      • Sama
      • Yakan
      • Sangil
      • Palawani
      • Molbog
  • The number of Balik-Islam (reverts to Islam) is a surging phenomenon in the Phiilippines.
  • Kolibugan
  • Jama Mapun
  • Iranun
  • Ka’agan
  • Badjao
slide5

SECTOR

1918

%

1970

%

1980

%

2000 %

Christians

159,132

22%

6.1 million

75%

7.1 million

65%

72%

Muslims

358,968

49

1.5 million

20

2.5 million

23

20

Lumads

205,555

29

1.2 million

5

1.2 million

12

N/A

TOTAL

723,625

100%

8.1 million

100%

10.9 million

100%

---

Were the Muslims always a minority in Mindanao?

Official Data as quoted from Tan, S. K., 1995, NCSO 2000 census

slide6

PROVINCE

1970 %

Rank

1990 %

Rank

Lanao del Norte

19.7

27

19.3

21

Sulu

15.5

37

11.0

52

Lanao del Sur

19.6

28

11.2

53

Bataan

15.4

38

31.1

11

Pampanga

13.3

39

27.5

15

Were the Muslims always poor?

NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH PIPED WATER, 1970/1990

slide7

1970

1990

PROVINCE

%

Rank

%

Rank

Zamboanga del Sur

10

28

40.2

37

Sulu

6.7

38

9.4

73

Ilocos Sur

4.5

50

61.8

13

Bukidnon

4.4

51

31.5

48

Lanao del Sur

3.7

58

34.9

43

Camiguin

3.1

59

26.4

57

slide10

95.14

91.97

88.12

85.99

80.5

75.36

Visayas

Mindanao

Luzon

Simple & functional literacy rate

  • 88% can read and write
  • 75% are functionally

literate

  • Simple Literacy Rate

Functional Literacy Rate

Sources: MCW & NCRFW

slide11

Life Expectancy, 2000

Mindanao has the shortest life expectancy

66.7

65.5

63

Luzon

Visayas

Mindanao

Life expectancy is an estimate of the average number of additional years a person can expect to live, based on the age-specific death rates for a given year.

slide12

Child Labor as a way of dealing with poverty in Mindanao

7 out of 10 Mindanao households have working children within 5-17 years old, surpassing the national average of 6 out of 10. (Oct 2001)

The phenomenon of child labor and child prostitution points to the problem of extreme poverty

Despite laws against child labor, many children have remained in the labor market.

Sources: MCW & NCRFW

slide15

II. The MNLF Peace Track

  • 1976 Tripoli Agreement under Marcos regime: autonomy in lieu of independence
  • Congress passed Republic Act No. 6734, (Organic Act) under the Aquino administration
  • Plebiscite held on August 1, 1989 in 13 provinces: only Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi joined ARMM
  • Final Peace Agreement between GRP and MNLF signed on September 2, 1996 under the Ramos administration
  • RA9054 passed amending RA 6734
  • Plebiscite in August 2001: Basilan and Marawi City joined ARMM
slide16

II. STATUS: MNLF Peace Track

  • Problematic implementation of 1996 FPA.
  • MNLF Chair Misuari was arrested 2001 on charges of rebellion. Allowed to post bail after 7 years of incarceration.
  • MNLF troops loyal to Misuari went back to the hills
  • Tripartite review of implementation ongoing
slide17

Failing Autonomy

  • The 1996 Peace Agreement has failed to deliver the “peace dividends”.
  • Instead of the promised autonomy, there is increased and heavy dependence of ARMM on the National Government
slide18

1997

2000

2003

Province

HDI

Province

HDI

Province

HDI

Sulu

0.336

Sulu

0.351

Sulu

0.31

Lanao del Sur

0.415

Tawi-Tawi

0.390

Maguindanao

0.36

Maguindanao

0.416

Basilan

0.425

Tawi-Tawi

0.36

Tawi-Tawi

0.430

Maguindanao

0.461

Basilan

0.41

Basilan

0.439

Ifugao

0.461

Masbate

0.44

Ifugao

0.452

Lanao del Sur

0.464

Zamboanga del Norte

0.45

Lanao del Norte

0.470

Agusan del Sur

0.482

Sarangani

0.45

Agusan del Sur

0.482

Samar

0.511

Western Samar

0.47

Samar

0.493

Lanao del Norte

0.512

Eastern Samar

0.47

Sarangani

0.494

Sarangani

0.516

Lanao del Sur

0.48

Human Development Index in ARMM: Lowest 10 provinces

2005 Philippine Human Development Report

slide19

REGION

1997

2000

2003

%

Rank

%

Rank

%

Rank

NCR

8.50

15

11.50

15

7.30

15

5-Bicol

57.00

2

61.90

2

47.90

4

8-Eastern Visayas

48.50

6

51.10

6

43.40

6

9-Western Mindanao

45.50

7

53.00

7

49.40

2

10-Northern Mindanao

52.70

4

52.20

4

44.30

5

12-Central Mindanao

55.80

3

58.10

3

38.40

7

CARAGA

---

---

---

CAR

50.10

5

43.80

5

31.20

9

ARMM

62.50

1

71.30

1

53.10

1

Poverty Incidence in ARMM

2005 Philippine Human Development Report

challenges

Lack of information about the conflict

Continuing armed conflict

High Iliteracy rates and unemployment

Abject Poverty

Militarization

Discrimination

Poor delivery of government basic social service

CHALLENGES
slide23

Understanding the MOA-AD

  • Basic principle: There is no alternative solution to end the 35-year old Mindanao conflict but to address the very root of the Bangsamoro problem through a politically-negotiated settlement.
  • The MOA-AD is a document that is the product of more than 4 years of negotiations between the government and the MILF.
  • The prospective BJE would have fulfilled the Bangsamoro people’s struggle for self determination – begun by the MNLF and pushed to completion by the MILF.
slide24

III. The Road Back to Peace

  • CEASEFIRE. Military strategies CANNOT resolve the Mindanao conflict. UN, EU, OIC, ASEAN assistance to bring parties back to negotiating table.
  • Peace process must include all stakeholders, including religious leaders like the Ulama as well as civil society. This will give the process the legitimacy and the critical political constituency it needs to succeed.
slide25

The Road Back to Peace

  • Government must resolve, not just manage, the Mindanao conflict. It should not allow the peace process to be hijacked by political posturing and opportunism.
  • All parties must show sincerity and allow the peace negotiations to proceed.
slide26

The Road Back to Peace

  • Genuine autonomy and lasting peace cannot be attained unless the central government divests itself of substantial powers and invest the same to local communities and allow them to chart their own destiny.
  • Federalism as an option after the 2010 elections