Mindanao and the Bangsamoro: Prospects for Peace
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Mindanao and the Bangsamoro: Prospects for Peace. I. Historical Foundations of the Bangsamoro Struggle. Bangsamoro ("the Moro People") 13-ethnolinguistic Muslim tribes in the Philippines Comprising about 5% of the Philippine population and around 20% of the population in Mindanao. .

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I. Historical Foundations of the Bangsamoro Struggle

  • Bangsamoro ("the Moro People")

  • 13-ethnolinguistic Muslim tribes in the Philippines

  • Comprising about 5% of the Philippine population and around 20% of the population in Mindanao.


Who are the muslims in the philippines l.jpg
WHO ARE THE MUSLIMS IN THE PHILIPPINES?

  • consist of 13 ethno-linguistic groups

  • distributed according to their respective geographical locations. The first three are the largest groups.

    • Maranao - Lanao del Sur

    • Maguindanao - Maguindanao Province and Cotabato

    • Tausug - Sulu

    • Sama

    • Yakan

    • Sangil

    • Palawani

    • Molbog

  • The number of Balik-Islam (reverts to Islam) is a surging phenomenon in the Phiilippines.

    • Kolibugan

    • Jama Mapun

    • Iranun

    • Ka’agan

    • Badjao



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    SECTOR

    1918

    %

    1970

    %

    1980

    %

    2000 %

    Christians

    159,132

    22%

    6.1 million

    75%

    7.1 million

    65%

    72%

    Muslims

    358,968

    49

    1.5 million

    20

    2.5 million

    23

    20

    Lumads

    205,555

    29

    1.2 million

    5

    1.2 million

    12

    N/A

    TOTAL

    723,625

    100%

    8.1 million

    100%

    10.9 million

    100%

    ---

    Were the Muslims always a minority in Mindanao?

    Official Data as quoted from Tan, S. K., 1995, NCSO 2000 census


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    PROVINCE

    1970 %

    Rank

    1990 %

    Rank

    Lanao del Norte

    19.7

    27

    19.3

    21

    Sulu

    15.5

    37

    11.0

    52

    Lanao del Sur

    19.6

    28

    11.2

    53

    Bataan

    15.4

    38

    31.1

    11

    Pampanga

    13.3

    39

    27.5

    15

    Were the Muslims always poor?

    NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH PIPED WATER, 1970/1990


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    1970

    1990

    PROVINCE

    %

    Rank

    %

    Rank

    Zamboanga del Sur

    10

    28

    40.2

    37

    Sulu

    6.7

    38

    9.4

    73

    Ilocos Sur

    4.5

    50

    61.8

    13

    Bukidnon

    4.4

    51

    31.5

    48

    Lanao del Sur

    3.7

    58

    34.9

    43

    Camiguin

    3.1

    59

    26.4

    57




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    95.14

    91.97

    88.12

    85.99

    80.5

    75.36

    Visayas

    Mindanao

    Luzon

    Simple & functional literacy rate

    • 88% can read and write

    • 75% are functionally

      literate

    • Simple Literacy Rate

    Functional Literacy Rate

    Sources: MCW & NCRFW


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    Life Expectancy, 2000

    Mindanao has the shortest life expectancy

    66.7

    65.5

    63

    Luzon

    Visayas

    Mindanao

    Life expectancy is an estimate of the average number of additional years a person can expect to live, based on the age-specific death rates for a given year.


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    Child Labor as a way of dealing with poverty in Mindanao

    7 out of 10 Mindanao households have working children within 5-17 years old, surpassing the national average of 6 out of 10. (Oct 2001)

    The phenomenon of child labor and child prostitution points to the problem of extreme poverty

    Despite laws against child labor, many children have remained in the labor market.

    Sources: MCW & NCRFW




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    II. The MNLF Peace Track

    • 1976 Tripoli Agreement under Marcos regime: autonomy in lieu of independence

    • Congress passed Republic Act No. 6734, (Organic Act) under the Aquino administration

    • Plebiscite held on August 1, 1989 in 13 provinces: only Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi joined ARMM

    • Final Peace Agreement between GRP and MNLF signed on September 2, 1996 under the Ramos administration

    • RA9054 passed amending RA 6734

    • Plebiscite in August 2001: Basilan and Marawi City joined ARMM


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    II. STATUS: MNLF Peace Track

    • Problematic implementation of 1996 FPA.

    • MNLF Chair Misuari was arrested 2001 on charges of rebellion. Allowed to post bail after 7 years of incarceration.

    • MNLF troops loyal to Misuari went back to the hills

    • Tripartite review of implementation ongoing


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    Failing Autonomy

    • The 1996 Peace Agreement has failed to deliver the “peace dividends”.

    • Instead of the promised autonomy, there is increased and heavy dependence of ARMM on the National Government


    Slide18 l.jpg

    1997

    2000

    2003

    Province

    HDI

    Province

    HDI

    Province

    HDI

    Sulu

    0.336

    Sulu

    0.351

    Sulu

    0.31

    Lanao del Sur

    0.415

    Tawi-Tawi

    0.390

    Maguindanao

    0.36

    Maguindanao

    0.416

    Basilan

    0.425

    Tawi-Tawi

    0.36

    Tawi-Tawi

    0.430

    Maguindanao

    0.461

    Basilan

    0.41

    Basilan

    0.439

    Ifugao

    0.461

    Masbate

    0.44

    Ifugao

    0.452

    Lanao del Sur

    0.464

    Zamboanga del Norte

    0.45

    Lanao del Norte

    0.470

    Agusan del Sur

    0.482

    Sarangani

    0.45

    Agusan del Sur

    0.482

    Samar

    0.511

    Western Samar

    0.47

    Samar

    0.493

    Lanao del Norte

    0.512

    Eastern Samar

    0.47

    Sarangani

    0.494

    Sarangani

    0.516

    Lanao del Sur

    0.48

    Human Development Index in ARMM: Lowest 10 provinces

    2005 Philippine Human Development Report


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    REGION

    1997

    2000

    2003

    %

    Rank

    %

    Rank

    %

    Rank

    NCR

    8.50

    15

    11.50

    15

    7.30

    15

    5-Bicol

    57.00

    2

    61.90

    2

    47.90

    4

    8-Eastern Visayas

    48.50

    6

    51.10

    6

    43.40

    6

    9-Western Mindanao

    45.50

    7

    53.00

    7

    49.40

    2

    10-Northern Mindanao

    52.70

    4

    52.20

    4

    44.30

    5

    12-Central Mindanao

    55.80

    3

    58.10

    3

    38.40

    7

    CARAGA

    ---

    ---

    ---

    CAR

    50.10

    5

    43.80

    5

    31.20

    9

    ARMM

    62.50

    1

    71.30

    1

    53.10

    1

    Poverty Incidence in ARMM

    2005 Philippine Human Development Report




    Challenges l.jpg

    Lack of information about the conflict

    Continuing armed conflict

    High Iliteracy rates and unemployment

    Abject Poverty

    Militarization

    Discrimination

    Poor delivery of government basic social service

    CHALLENGES


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    Understanding the MOA-AD

    • Basic principle: There is no alternative solution to end the 35-year old Mindanao conflict but to address the very root of the Bangsamoro problem through a politically-negotiated settlement.

    • The MOA-AD is a document that is the product of more than 4 years of negotiations between the government and the MILF.

    • The prospective BJE would have fulfilled the Bangsamoro people’s struggle for self determination – begun by the MNLF and pushed to completion by the MILF.


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    III. The Road Back to Peace

    • CEASEFIRE. Military strategies CANNOT resolve the Mindanao conflict. UN, EU, OIC, ASEAN assistance to bring parties back to negotiating table.

    • Peace process must include all stakeholders, including religious leaders like the Ulama as well as civil society. This will give the process the legitimacy and the critical political constituency it needs to succeed.


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    The Road Back to Peace

    • Government must resolve, not just manage, the Mindanao conflict. It should not allow the peace process to be hijacked by political posturing and opportunism.

    • All parties must show sincerity and allow the peace negotiations to proceed.


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    The Road Back to Peace

    • Genuine autonomy and lasting peace cannot be attained unless the central government divests itself of substantial powers and invest the same to local communities and allow them to chart their own destiny.

    • Federalism as an option after the 2010 elections



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