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The Philippines. A Brief History. Map of the Philippines Today. I. Early Philippines. A. Filipinos are descended from Aeta , Agta , Ati ( Negritoes ), Tawainese , Chinese, Japanese, East Indian, Arab & Spanish. I. Filipino Ethnic & Religious Groups. I. Early Philippines.

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the philippines

The Philippines

A Brief History

i early philippines
I. Early Philippines
  • A. Filipinos are descended from Aeta, Agta, Ati (Negritoes), Tawainese, Chinese, Japanese, East Indian, Arab & Spanish
i early philippines1
I. Early Philippines
  • B. Ancient Filipino rice farmlands in the North
  • C. Farm life D. Outrigger & Fishing
ii spanish colonization of the philippines
II. Spanish Colonization of the Philippines
  • A. 1521 Filipino Colonization began with Ferdinand Magellan
  • B. The Spanish set up the same social class system in the Philippines & the Americas
ii spanish class system in the philippines
II. Spanish Class System in the Philippines


Spanish_born in Spain

Creoles (Criollos)Spanish born

in the Phillipines

Mestizoes, mixed

with Filipino & Spanish

Filipinos, Chinese, Other Asians & Mixtures of Filipinos (Indios) &with other Asian groups

iii the moro sulu enslavement of filipinos
III. The Moro/Sulu Enslavement of Filipinos
  • A. Moro/Sulu Slavery began in the southern part of the Philippines between


  • B. It was the result of a high demand for Chinese tea in Great Britain & the desire to lower Chinese tea prices
  • C. The English decided to take advantage of 2 things:
iii moro sulu slavery pirates slave raiders
III. Moro/Sulu Slavery: Pirates & Slave Raiders

D. 1, Moro Pirates that raid Spanish ships & steal guns

2, The Sulu ability to get sea cucumbers, pearls, birds’ nests, tortoise shells (all products that can be traded for tea)

iii moro sulu slavery pirates slave raiders1
III. Moro/Sulu Slavery: Pirates & Slave Raiders

Birds’ Nest Soup



iii moro sulu slavery
III. Moro/Sulu Slavery:

E. In order to gather enough of these rare products, the sultan decided to use slave labor

F. Moro Slave raiders attacked & kidnapped people from:

  • Mindanao’s northern coast
  • Visayas’ coast, Java, Indonesia
  • Luzon’s coast Sumatra, Indonesia
  • Borneo’s coast Malay Peninsula
  • Celebes’ coast Sulu
iii slave trade map
III. Slave Trade Map

Moro Slave Trade

Trans Indian Slave Trade

Trans Atlantic Slave Trade

iii moro sulu slavery1
III. Moro/Sulu Slavery:
  • G. Between 20,000-30,000 people were kidnapped from their homes
  • H. Forced to work in caves collecting birds’ nests, diving for pearls & sea cucumbers
  • I. The Sulu Sultan (King) traded birds’ nests, pearls & sea cucumbers to England in exchange for gunpowder, silk & porcelain
  • J. The English traded birds’ nests, pearls & sea cucumbers to China for tea
iv filipino enslavement in the americas
IV. Filipino Enslavement in the Americas
  • A. Filipinos came to Mexico from 1565-1815 as sailors, prisoners, adventurers & most commonly slaves on the Manila Galleon
  • B. Filipinos were brought to the Americas to work in the fields, plantations, mines & homes
iv filipino enslavement in the americas3
IV. Filipino Enslavement in the Americas
  • C. Mexico

1. Large groups in Colima, Guerrero

& Michoacan

2. “China Poblana”, Filipina slave who:

a. combined Filipino & Mexican recipes to make Mole

b. combined Filipino & Mexican clothes

iv filipino enslavement in the americas4
IV. Filipino Enslavement in the Americas

3. Isidoro Montes de Oca was Filipino Mexico revolutionary:

a. who fought alongside Vicente Guererro & Father Jose Morelos.

b. La Union de Isidoro Montes de Oca, Guerrero Mexico is named after him

4. Francisco Mongoy was Filipino Mexico revolutionary who fought alongside Vicente Guererro

v cavite mutiny revolt
V. Cavite Mutiny (Revolt)

A. Indigenous Filipinos routinely revolted against the Spanish

B. Due to high taxation, few rights, etc creoles & mestizos began organizing

C. Three priests called “GOMBURZA”, Maraino Gomez, Jose Burgos & Jacinto Zamora called for church reforms & civil rights for Filipinos

v cavite mutiny revolt2
V. Cavite Mutiny (Revolt)

D. Soldiers were forced to pay taxes for the first time & do “polo y servicio” (forced labor)

E. On January 20, 1872, 200 soldiers & workers also rose up because their paychecks not only reflected taxes, but also “falla” (a tax to be exempted from forced labor)& lost

F. The priests “GOMBURZA” were falsely accused of organizing the revolt (by 3 alleged mutineers), along with several other soldiers

v cavite mutiny revolt4
V. Cavite Mutiny (Revolt)

G. February 17,1872 They were executed on Bagumbayan Field

H. Some revolutionaries were sentenced to life in prison or exiled to Guam

I. Served as the “unofficial” beginning or inspiration for the Filipino Revolution

vi the philippine revolution1
VI. The Philippine Revolution
  • A. Causes of the Revolution:

1. Enlightenment Ideals (Lack of civil rights, racism, democracy, land, education, etc)

2. Unfair Casta System, that favored peninsulares & discriminated against indigenous Filipinos

3. The building of the Suez Canal (1869), opened up trade, education & new ideas on freedom

4. Filipinos were inspired by the Cavite Mutiny (1872) considered “GOMBURZA” to be martyrs

5. Jose Rizal formed “La Liga Filipina” (1892), which split into 2 groups

6. As a result, Filipinos never stopped organizing

vi the philippine revolution3
VI. The Philippine Revolution
  • B. “The Katipunan”
      • (one of La Liga Filipina’s splinter groups)

1. Organized in 1895 by Andres Bonifacio

2. Meant “gathering”, “society” in Tagalog

3. It was a pro-independence Filipino group

4. Emilio Aguinaldo, a veteran & survivor of the Cavite Mutiny joined the group

5. It had a membership of 100,000 by 1896

vi the philippine revolution4
VI. The Philippine Revolution

Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangKatipunanngmgaAnakngBayan

vi the philippine revolution5
VI. The Philippine Revolution
  • C. The Philippine Revolution Begins

1. In August of 1896, the Spanish discovered the existence of Katipunan

2. 1896, Andres Bonifacio started the revolution with the "Cry of PugadLawin or “The Cry of Balintawak” which called for an end to taxation & Filipino Independence from Spain

3. The Spanish immediately arrested Jose Rizal

vi the philippine revolution7
VI. The Philippine Revolution

4. Emilio Aguinaldo, a veteran of the Cavite Mutiny joins “The Katipunan”

5. On August 29, with 1,000 rebels, “The Katipunan” attacked Manila

6. It eventually spread throughout the country

7. Jose Rizal was publicly executed him on 12/ 30/1896 & became a symbol of struggle

vi the philippine revolution9
VI. The Philippine Revolution
  • 8. Jose Rizal:

a. A reformer, activist, writer, artist & doctor

b. Wrote Noli Me Tangere(Critical of Phillipine Society) & El Filibusterismo(Critical of Spanish Rule of the Philippines & the Catholic Church)

c. Created Maria Clara, heroine of Noli Me Tangere, who has become a symbol of the Philippines

d. Rizal Day is a national holiday in the Philippines

vi the philippine revolution12
VI. The Philippine Revolution
  • 9. Emilio Aguinaldo:

a. Wins several battles against the Spanish

b. Became the leader of “The Katipunan”

c. Executes Andres Bonifacio (possibly on false charges) in March1897

d. December 15, 1897, Biak-na-Bato marked the end of The Philippine Revolution

e. Exiled to Hong Kong

vi the philippine revolution14
VI. The Philippine Revolution
  • D. The Spanish-American War

1. In 1898 US declared war on Spain over the sinking of the USS Maine.

2. The US Navy destroyed Spanish fleet in the Philippines May 1. 1898

3. Emilio Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines & declared independence from Spain

4. Emilio Aguinaldo established the Philippine Republic & became the 1st president

vi the philippine revolution17
VI. The Philippine Revolution

Battle of Manila Bay

vii pilipino american war
VII. Pilipino-American War
  • A. The US refused to recognize Emilio Aguinaldo’s government & Philippine Independence
  • B. The Philippines declared war on the US
  • C. The US under General Jacob Smith:
      • 1. In retaliation for the death of 40 of his soldiers, committed numerous atrocities against 2, 500 Filipino men , women & children
      • 2. He was charged with “War Crimes” & removed from the military
vii pilipino american war3
VII. Pilipino-American War
  • D. By 1902, 4,000 Americans & more than

40, 000 Filipinos were killed

  • E. Filipino resistance continued from


  • F. The US government agreed to build

infrastructure, such as schools, railroads,

hospitals, etc

  • G. The Japanese occupied the Philippines 1942-1945
  • H. The US government & corporations kept

control of the Philippines until 1946

vi heroes of the the philippine revolution
VI. Heroes of the The Philippine Revolution

Andres Bonifacio

Emilio Aguinaldo

Jose Rizal

viii wwii the philippines
VIII. WWII & The Philippines
  • G. The Japanese occupied the Philippines 1942-1945
  • H. The US government & corporations kept

control of the Philippines until 1946

I. The Philippines get independence