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Location of Philippines. Introduction. 7,107 Islands; 1000 populated. 100 local languages, 9 major. Little early history recorded. Spanish colony 1571-1898. U.S. colony 1898-1946. Japanese occupation 1942-45 Muslim – Christian conflict. Spratly Island Oil. Early Settlement. Migration

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Location of Philippines

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  • 7,107 Islands; 1000 populated.
  • 100 local languages, 9 major.
  • Little early history recorded.
  • Spanish colony 1571-1898.
  • U.S. colony 1898-1946.
  • Japanese occupation 1942-45
  • Muslim – Christian conflict.
  • Spratly Island Oil
early settlement
Early Settlement
  • Migration
    • Negritos
    • Malays
      • Barangay
      • Datu
  • Spanish “Discovery.”
    • 1521 Ferdinand Magellan – Cebu Island.
    • Lapulapu vs. Humabon
structure of spanish rule
Structure of Spanish Rule
  • 1565 - Permanent settlement at Cebu. Seized Manila in 1570. Already an established port.
  • Introduced private ownership of land.
  • Datu renamed cabeza de barangay andbecame tax collectors and “owner” of commonly held land.
  • Principalia composed of key families, usually landholders, called caciques.
  • Gobernadorcillo governed a pueblo of 500 tax payers.
structure of spanish rule5
Structure of Spanish Rule
  • The Friars:
    • By 1594, there were 267 missionary priests.
    • Spain sought to avoid exploitation and establish a real Christian paradise.
    • Friars exercised considerable influence at local level.
      • Power of the Catholic Church and religion.
      • Only they spoke both Spanish and the local languages.
    • Large tracts of untaxed, virgin land given to support missions.
      • Inquilinos – Functioned as a contractor to clear and improve land. Given concessions of tenancy rights and free rent.
      • Kasama – Functioned as share croppers at 50% of yield.
structure of spanish rule6
Structure of Spanish Rule
  • Governor-General appointed by Madrid, but administered as part of Mexico through Acapulco.
  • Annual Manila Galleon began in 1573.
  • Manila hub of the Spanish China-trade. Chinese goods to Mexico; Peruvian Silver back. 50% profit. A Spanish crown monopoly; intentionally limited to once a year. The church invested heavily.
ethnic social groups
Ethnic-Social Groups
  • Indios
    • Lowlanders (tao).
    • Uplanders
  • Chinese.
  • Mestizos
    • Chinese
    • Spanish
  • Filipinos
  • Ilustrados
  • Development.
    • College of St. Thomas founded in 1611.
    • Occupation of Manila by Britain in 1762.
    • Opportunities for foreign education.
  • Expression.
    • The Propaganda Movement in Spain.
    • Mutiny at Cavite arsenal in1872.
    • Jose Rizal, Noli Me Tangere (1887).
  • Which country controlled the Philippines the longest, Spain, the U.S.A.or Japan?
  • When was the first Spanish settlement established? Where?
  • What was a small native community called?
  • The Filipinos had little concept of private property (True/False)
  • The Philippines were administered by the Spanish as part of what country?
  • What is a Mestizo?
  • Inquilinos functioned as _______ to _____ ______ ____.
  • To qualify as an illustrado, normally a person would require a European ________.
  • Katipunan founded by Andres Bonifacio.
  • Manila uprising of 1896.
  • Jose Rizal executed.
  • In 1897, Emilio Aguinaldo leads revolutionary forces to victory against the Spanish at Cavite.
  • Spanish negotiate.
  • Aguinaldo accepts amnesty & 800,000 pesos. Goes to Hong Kong.

Jose Rizal

spanish american war 1898
Spanish - American War (1898)
  • A convergence of events.
    • (May 1) U.S. Asiatic Fleet under command of Admiral George Dewey destroys Spanish fleet in Manila Bay and lays siege to the city.
    • (May) Aguinaldo and arms brought back to Philippines and landed at Cavite. He recruits an army & proclaims a revolutionary government.
    • Dewey negotiates surrender of Manila and transfer of colony to U.S. for $20 million.
    • (July) 11,000 U.S. troops arrive.
    • (August) M.G. Arthur McArthur lands at Cavite, occupies Manila and declares all under U.S. protection.
philippine war 1899 1902
Philippine War (1899-1902)
  • Revolution becomes insurrection.
    • 1898 (June) - Aguinaldo declares independence.
    • 1899 (February) – Aguinaldo attacks Manila.
    • 1901-02 – US. force levels reach 150,000 “goddamns”; reconcentrado tactics applied.
    • 1901 – Aguinaldo captured; insurgency continues at reduced levels until 1913.
    • Total Filipino deaths may have reached 600,000, one-seventh of population.
  • Reasons for U.S. acquisition of Philippines.
    • “New Imperialism” composed of “Manifest Destiny” (John Fiske), “White Man’s Burden” (R. Kiplin) & sea power (A.T. Mahan).
    • Fear that China would be partitioned.(John Hay “Open Door Policy”)
    • Desirability as an advanced base and entrepot.
    • Belief that Germany would take it, if U.S. didn’t.

(German naval squadron arrived at Manila Bay

o/a June 12, 1898 with that intent.)

american tutelage
American Tutelage
  • 1901- W. H. Taft as head of a 5 person commission becomes the first civil governor. Replaces McArthur.
  • 1902 – The Organic Act. Basic rights protected.
  • 1907 – First Philippine Assembly.
  • 1913 - Francis B. Harrison appointed governor-general by Pres. Wilson.
  • 1916 Jones Act. Goal to prepare for full autonomy.
    • Constitution structure comparable to U.S.
    • Filipinization of government plus reduced presence of U.S bureaucrats and teachers.
  • 1921- Period of retrenchment under Gov-Gen Leonard Wood & Gov-Gen Cameron Forbes.
american tutelage15
American Tutelage
  • 1934 – Philippinese becomes a commonwealth under Tydings-McDuffie Act.
  • 1934 - Manuel Quezon elected first president & Sergio Osmena first vice-president.
  • 1935 – Commonwealth constitution drafted.
  • 1936 – Douglas McArthur appointed a Philippine field marshal.
  • Who founded Katipunan?
  • Who wrote Noli Me Tangere?
  • Who was the first president of the Philippines?
  • Who was the first president and vice president of the Philippine Commonwealth?
  • Who commanded the U.S. Asiatic Fleet in 1898?
  • Why did the U.S. decide to take the Philippines?
  • Which McArthur retired as a Philippine field marshal?
world war ii
World War II
  • Japanese commercial interest in Philippines expand during 1930’s. Part of the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere.
  • December 8 & 9, 1941, Japanese destroy U.S. forces at Clark A.B. and Cavite. Two days later, they land at Lingayen.
  • 1942 - Gen MacArthur (plus Quezon & Osmena) flee to Australia. Gen. Wainwright left to fight to the end on Bataan.
  • The Hukbalahap is formed under Luis Taruc. Largest guerrilla movement in Southeast Asia.
the philippine republic
The Philippine Republic
  • 1943 – Japanese establish Philippine Republic under Jose Laurel.
  • 1944 – MacArthur returns.
  • July 4, 1946 – U.S. grants the Philippines full independence with Manuel Roxas as president.
colonial score card
Colonial Score Card
  • Trade.
    • Treaty with Spain precluded preferential tariffs for U.S. for ten years, i.e., until 1909.
    • Goods from Spain, British, Sweden & Germany subject to stiff tariffs after 1909.
    • Avoided evils of huge plantations, imported alien labor and opium concessions.
  • Investment limited to sugarcane, tobacco & hemp plantations due to fear of early independence.
    • British controlled strong positions in shipping and rail.
    • U.S. only constructed 866 miles of track & little else..
colonial score card20
Colonial Score Card
  • Social welfare efforts outstanding.
    • Established 1,000 dispensaries and 40 hospitals.
    • Life expectancy rose from 14 to 40 years.
    • Established universal free education at primary level. Imported 600 U.S. teachers & trained native teachers
    • Literacy rate reached 50% (+/-) by 1940.
    • Instruction in English facilitated communication between linguistic groups.
post ww ii 1946 53
Post WW II (1946-53)
  • Major problems following WW II: rebuilding the economy, Philippine - U.S. relations & the Huks.
  • U.S. aid tied to economic concessions and military installations, e.g., Clark AB (Angeles) and Subic Bay (Olongapo).
  • Huk discontent was feeding into the spread of indigenous Communism.
the magsaysay revolution
The Magsaysay Revolution
  • Ramon Magsaysay, 7th president.(1953-57)
    • Born in a bamboo hut.
    • WW II guerrilla leader.
    • As Sec. of Def.,
      • Military became involved in relief work (dual function).
      • Arrested Commust politburo en masse..
      • Military guaranteed 1951 elections
    • Wore a Barong Tagalog when sworn in as president.
the magsaysay revolution23
The Magsaysay Revolution
  • As president:
    • Blunted the Huk rebellion.
    • Settled landless in Mindanao.
      • Alleviated land pressure on Luzon.
      • Altered the Muslim-Christian balance.
    • Supported SEATO.
    • Died in a plane crash in 1957.
  • In 1963, Ferdinand Marcos appeared to fill the political void.
  • On which island is Lingayen?
  • Where did the Hukbalahap operate?
  • Who was president of the Philippine Republic?
  • The U.S. made a huge investment in the Philippine infrastructure? (True/False)
  • One source of discontent in U.S. – Philippine relations was the connection between foreign aid and ________.
  • How did Raymond Magsaysay attempt to reduce the pressure for land on Luzon?
the marcos era
The Marcos Era
  • Ferdinand Marcos, 10th President (1965-86).
    • Born in Ilocos Norte.
    • Chinese & Japanese ancestry.
    • Father a lawyer & assemblyman.
    • Acquitted of murder.
    • Scored 100% on Bar.
    • WW II hero. (Questioned).
    • Served 3 terms in house & 2 in Senate.
    • Married Imelda Romualdez
the marcos era26
The Marcos Era
  • Early economic success:
      • Unemployment dropped from 7.2 to 5.2% in 1971.
      • Developed infrastructure.
      • Intensified tax collection.
      • Liberalized trade.
      • Hastened industrialization.
      • Land reform & green revolution.
      • Launched military campaign against Communist New People’s Army and Moros.
      • GNP rose from P55 billion to

P193 billion in 1980.

marcos new society
Marcos’ New Society
  • Elected to second term in 1969.
  • Proclaimed martial law in 1972 after NPA bombings in Manila. By 1985, 20, 000 insurgents, growing at rate of 23% with Chinese arms.
  • Graf and corruption: between $684 million and $10 billion, conjugal dictatorship, crony capitalism, quintessential kleptocrat, notorious nepotist.
    • Ex: $2.3 billion for Battaan Nuclear Power Plant.
  • Unemployment boomed to 12.55% in 1985.
  • Assassination of Benigno Aquino in 1983.
marcos challenged
Marcos Challenged
  • As Marco’s only viable rival, Benigno Aquino was imprisoned for 7 years and then exiled for 3 more in the U.S.
  • Aquino saw a chance to return from exile. Marcos was dying of cancer, the economy had collapsed, inflation was rampant. Imelda warned of danger.
  • On August 21, 1983 in front of the whole world, Aquino was shot in the back of the head as he exited his aircraft. He fell dead on the tarmac at the bottom of the steps. The murder sparked the EDSA Revolution.
the edsa revolution
The EDSA Revolution
  • Benigno Aquino’s burial was a period of national mourning. Corazon became the heroin.
  • October 1983 inquiry results in Fabian Ver & 25 others being cleared.
  • Corazon becomes candidate for president in 1985 snap election backed by Jaime Cardinal Sin.
  • Symbols: yellow dress & “L” for Laban hand sign.
the edsa revolution30
The EDSA Revolution
  • Both Marcos and Aquino claimed victory in a blatantly fraudulent election. Both took the oath of office as president on the same day.
  • On Feb 22, ’86, Juan Ponce Enrile (Min. of Def.) & General Fidel Ramos (Vice Chief) lead a military coup by R.A.M. supporting Aqjuino. They take control of Camps Aguinaldo and Crane.
  • Jaime Cardinal Sin broadcasts appeal over Radio Veritas for the faithful to gather on the Epifanio de los Santas Ave. to protect Enrile and Ramos from Fabian Ver’s troops. Tens of thousands respond some laying down in front of the tanks sent to crush the uprising.
aquino s administration
Aquino’s Administration
  • Corizon Aquino inaugurated president on Feb 25, 1986. President Reagan provided refuge for the Marcoses, Ver and supporters in Hawaii.
  • Immediate tasks: Aquino proclaimed “Freedom Constitution, abolished Marcos’ legislature & judges, created a constitutional commission & replaced thousands of political appointees.
  • Next: Aquino sought to deal with the insurgency but found that the greatest threat was from military coups attempts.
coup attempts
Coup Attempts
  • The Aquino administration survived 7 coup attempts. The more notable ones were:
    • July 6, 1986 – Arturo Tolentino, a 1986 Vice Pres candidate, seized the Manila Hotel and declared himself president. He was backed by several hundred troops, but folded in 3 days.
    • January 24, 1987 – Colonel Oscar Canlas seized a TV station. Led to a 3 day standoff involving 6 officers and 136 soldiers.
    • August 28, 1987 – Colonel Gregorio Honasan attacked the presidential residence & Manila air base. He had several hundred soldiers under his command. Fifty-
three persons were killed and hundreds wounded including Aquino’s son.

- December 1, 1989 – Greorio Hanosan and RAM struck again. Three thousand rebel troops including the Scout Rangers seized military headquarters, 2 TV stations & the commercial airport. Launched air attacks against the presidential palace from Villamore AB. The U.S. provided combat patrols to keep the Filipino aircraft on the ground. The rebels then seized parts of Makati City trapping thousands of foreigners.

aquino s score card
Aquino’s Score Card
  • Restructured the massive debt left by Marcos. Became the beneficiary of a $1.3 IMF bailout and a $10 Billion mini-Marshall Plan.
  • Successfully encouraged foreign investment until the 1989 coup attempt.
  • Failed to produce an adequate land reform program or cope with the worst poverty in S.E.Asia.
  • Failed to renew the agreement for U.S military bases in the Philippines. The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 closed Clark. The Philippine Senate would not ratify the Subic Bay agreement. The U.S. withdrew Naval assets to Singapore.
aquino s score card35
Aquino’s Score Card
  • Valiantly struggled to negotiate an end to Moro insurgency. Achieved a cease-fire with Mur Misuari (who was in Libya).
  • Established “people power” as a real force.
  • Restored democracy, honest and fair judiciary, freedom of speech and democratic succession.
    • The 1992 election involved 82,450 candidates and 17,205 posts.
    • 26 million voted in peaceful honest elections.
  • Which statement is false about Ferdinand Marcos?
    • He was a mestizo.
    • He was accused of cheating on the bar exam.
    • He assassinated Benigno Aquino.
    • He was convicted of murder.
    • He achieved great economic success during his first term as president.
more questions
More Questions
  • During the EDSA Revolution, what highly placed religious figure appealed to the people over Radio Veritas to support Corazon Aquino? What song did the people sing when the siege was over?
  • What individual and organization was responsible for at least two coup attempts against Corazon Aquino?
  • The Philippine senate refused to ratify the agreement for the U.S. to continue to use Clark A.B. because it had been used to intervene in internal Philippine politics? (True/False)
  • What was the greatest accomplishment of the Aquino administration?
fidel ramos presidency
Fidel Ramos’ Presidency
  • Twelfth President (1992-98)
    • Father was a served as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
    • Graduate of West Point.
    • Served in Korea & Vietnam.
    • First Protestant to be elected as president.
ramos administration
Ramos’ Administration
  • Achieved peace agreement with Mur Misuari of the Moro National Liberation Front MNLF) in 1996. The agreement specifies a Special Zone for Peace and Development
  • Reformed tax collection. Between $1.2 and 2.5 billion uncollected annually.
  • Reformed banking by reducing power of domestic cartels and interest rates. (6% spread vs. Asian average of 2%.)
  • Deregulated telecommunications and metro water & sewer.
  • Through private investment, replaced the Bataan nuclear plant so that Manilla has adequate electrical power.
  • Left office after one six-year term, although tempted to do otherwise.
current administration
Current Administration
  • Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo, 14th president.
    • Father was 9th president, Diosdado Macapagal.
    • Initially elected first woman V.P. in 1998.
    • Sworn as president in 2001 following EDSA II removal of Joseph Estrada. Elected in own right in 2004.
    • Survived Oakwood Mutiny in 2003 and an attempted coup in 2006 by declaring a state of emergency.
  • From what U.S. school did Fidel Ramos graduate?
  • What were the accomplishments of Ramos’ administration?
  • Which president did Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo succeed? Against whom did she run in 2004.
  • What qualifications did Arroyo have to be president?
  • What was EDSA II?
  • What led to the declaration of a state of emergency in 2006.
institutions and social groups
Institutions and Social Groups
  • Constitutions. The 1987 Aquino Constitution is the most democratic in S.E.Asia.
  • Political Parties.
    • The traditional parties were the Liberal & Nacionalista (1946-72).
    • Marcos established one party dominance under the KBL (New Society movement).
    • Aquino’s party was Labam (Fight), founded by her husband. She campaigned under the UNIDO umbrella. UNIDO was founded by Salvador Laurel, her V.P.
institutions and social groups43
Institutions and Social Groups
  • Military.
    • The Philippine military has for the most part been subordinated to civilian leaders. Marcos expanded the military to 154,000 but deprofessionalized it thru cronyism (Ex: Fabian Ver).
    • RAM (Reform the Armed Forces Movement) was a reaction to Marco’s policies, but took on a life of its own. RAM conducted a series of coups, one to put Aquino in power and 7 to depose her. Key players were Juan Ponce Enrile (Min of Def.), Salvado Laurel (V.P.) and Colonel Gregorio Honasan.
institutions and social groups44
Institutions and Social Groups
  • Women.
    • Traditionally women have played only a minor role in Philippine politics, demurely allowing men to lead.
    • Powerful women such as Imelda Marcos and Corazon Aquino have been anomalous, their power largely dependent on their husbands’ positions.
    • Aquino’s refusal to let V.P. Salvador Laurel run her government, her strength, popularity and commitment to democratic principles were one cause of the coups against her.
institutions and social groups45
Institutions and Social Groups
  • Insurgents.
    • The CPP’s military arm is the NPA. At one time it had 20,000 fighters and controlled 20% of the land.
    • Under Ramos, it dwindled in significance. However, Abu Sayyaf Muslim guerrillas became a force in the Mindanao area under President Arroyo. (Gracia Burham, In The Presence of My Enemies.)
  • Church.
    • 84% Catholic, 12,000 priests and nuns.
    • The church was a key factor in EDSA Revolution.
institutions and social groups46
Institutions and Social Groups
  • Democratization.
    • Formal institutions are a model of democracy.
    • A relatively few family dynasties control the economy and politics.
      • Ex: The Osmena in Cebu.
    • Rich families function as patrons for the poor, but expect loyalty in return.
      • Ex: God parents (compadre).
    • Sense of national inferiority from colonial period.
  • How democratic is the 1987 Aquino constitution?
  • Name Aquino’s two political parties.
  • What is Marco’s legacy for the Philippine military?
  • What has been the traditional role of women in politics? How has this effected the acceptance of Aquino and Arroyo?
  • What proportion of the Philippine population is Catholic?
  • What are the greatest barriers to true democratic government in the Philippines?