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Part III: Island Southeast Asia. Island Southeast Asia: an Introduction. The archipelago . chapters: Indonesia, the Philippines, Borneo nations: Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines physical and cultural geography. Musical instruments depend on available materials. Bronze Wood

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the archipelago
The archipelago
  • chapters: Indonesia, the Philippines, Borneo
  • nations: Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines
  • physical and cultural geography
musical styles bear similarities across the region
Musical styles bear similarities across the region
  • layers of parts in stratification
  • interlocking patterns
  • composite rhythms and melodies
  • vocal music crosses many genres
questions for discussion
Questions for Discussion
  • Why are the chapters divided by geography, not by nation?
  • What do natural resources have to do with music production?
  • Can one talk about the separate islands as being part of a unified culture group?
introduction to island diversity
Introduction to island diversity
  • independence from the Dutch in 1945
  • at least 13,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Bali, and others
  • prevalence of gong-chime ensembles
sumatran cultural history
Sumatran cultural history
  • bronze kettledrums
  • Buddhist and Hindu temples and kingdoms
  • entry of Islam in the 13th century
  • European conquest in the 16th century
sumatran regional music special region of aceh
Sumatran regional music: special region of Aceh
  • Muslim devotional arts
  • rapa’i frame drum
  • daboih: religious acts of chanting and self-mortification
  • seudati: choral singing with body percussion
sumatran regional music north sumatra province
Sumatran regional music: North Sumatra province
  • animist stratum (songs, xylophones, tilempong)
  • Muslim stratum (devotional songs, rebana frame drum, gambus lute)
  • Portuguese-Malay stratum (secular songs and Western instruments)
sumatran regional music west sumatra province
Sumatran regional music: West Sumatra province
  • Minangkabau highlands (talempong and saluang; randai theater)
  • coastal areas (localized talempong, 3-stringed fiddles, long tales)
  • Mentawai islands (slit drums and other percussion, ritual songs)
sumatran regional music riau province
Sumatran regional music: Riau province
  • animist beliefs, ritual songs, sempelong flute
  • bronze bells, gambang xylophone ensembles, celempong ensembles
  • storytelling, improvised poetry, long songs
  • erotic dancing
sumatran regional music jambi province
Sumatran regional music: Jambi province
  • pre-Islamic genres (healing ceremonies, self defense, courting music)
  • post-Portuguese music (orkes Melayu, kelintang gong music)
  • nomadic people play portable instruments
sumatran regional music bengkulu province
Sumatran regional music: Bengkulu province
  • famous for megalithic monuments and large national park
  • many ceremonial dances around a wooden pole
  • vocal genre dendang
sumatran regional music south sumatra province
Sumatran regional music: South Sumatra province
  • pre-Hindu-Buddhist traditions still exist (songs, flutes)
  • bronze gong-and-drum ensembles represent Hindu-Buddhist stratum
  • orkes Melayu and orkes gambus represent the Muslim stratum
sumatran regional music lampung province
Sumatran regional music: Lampung province
  • huge impact of Javanese in-migration
  • music for Jew’s harp, flute, and songs belong to ancient Abung culture
  • pre-Muslim bronze ensembles
questions for discussion1
Questions for Discussion
  • What do most of these regions have in common?
  • How do the different layers of influence interact with each other?
  • What aspects of Sumatran music are animist?
javanese introduction
Javanese introduction
  • dense population contrasts with expansive rice fields and volcanoes
  • distinctions between Central and East Java, Cirebon, and Sunda
central and east javanese history
Central and East Javanese history
  • Hindu-Javanese period: Majapahit
  • Islamic period: Mataram
  • European period: Dutch East-India Company
central javanese cultural geography
Central Javanese cultural geography
  • court traditions of Surakarta and Yogyakarta in Central Java
  • distinctions between alus (refined, subtle) and gagah (strong, robust)
  • East Java as a culturally distinct area
central javanese gamelan instruments
Central Javanese gamelan instruments
  • gongs
  • metallophones
  • stringed instruments
  • percussion
  • singers
central javanese non gamelan instruments
Central Javanese non-gamelan instruments
  • gamelan klenèngan (soft-playing instruments)
  • calung (bamboo xylophone ensemble)
  • gandrung (violins, drums, gong, triangle)
  • angklung (multioctave bambook xylophone, metallphones, flute/oboe)
  • hobby-horse trance dance, small percussion ensembles
the relationship between central javanese music dance and theater
The relationship between Central Javanese music, dance, and theater
  • singer-dancer traditions
  • acting dances
  • puppet theater (wayang kulit)
central javanese tuning systems scales and modes
Central Javanese tuning systems, scales, and modes
  • laras (scale, tuning)
  • sléndro and pélog
  • pathet (tonal hierarchy, range, intervallic structure)
central javanese repertoires and formal structures
Central Javanese repertoires and formal structures
  • gendhing (gamelan pieces with cyclic structures)
  • balungan (skeletal melody and basis for improvisation)
  • different aspects of formal organization
central javanese vocal music
Central Javanese vocal music
  • tembang (sung poetry)
  • pathetan (mood songs, sung by dhalang puppeteers)
central javanese performance practice
Central Javanese performance practice
  • irama (subdivisions of the basic pulse)
  • relationship between the balungan and the garapan (rendering of balungan)
  • role of the drummer
central javanese music and the mass media
Central Javanese music and the mass media
  • Radio
  • recording industry
  • television
central javanese performers and composers
Central Javanese performers and composers
  • traditional ideas of performance
  • separation by gender
  • traditional and modern concepts of composition
new central javanese developments in music
New Central Javanese developments in music
  • new compositions in the post-Independence era
  • popular music
  • experimental composition
  • the cultural boundary between the Central Javanese and the Sundanese
  • influences on (and from) Javanese and Sundanese arts
  • division of Cirebon into kingdoms: Kasepuhan, Kanoman, Kacirebonan and Kaprabonan courts
  • contexts of musical performance (ritual, weddings, circumcisions, theater)
cirebonese music and islam
Cirebonese music and Islam
  • musical instruments (frame drums, double-headed drums)
  • transformation of Hindu arts (wayang, gamelan)
  • growing Islamization of the region
cirebonese musical systems
Cirebonese musical systems
  • gamelan prawa (sléndro tuning)
  • gamelan pélog (pélog tuning)
  • cyclic pieces
  • genjring frame drum ensemble
  • ketuk tilu kettle gong ensemble
new developments in cirebonese music
New developments in Cirebonese music
  • Western-style bands
  • Sundanese influences
  • incorporation of diatonic melodies
sundanese cultural geography
Sundanese cultural geography
  • layers of cultural influence
  • Hindu-Buddhism and the kingdom of Pajajaran
  • Islam and the kingdom of Mataram
structures of sundanese music
Structures of Sundanese music
  • organization in cycles
  • tuning: pélog, sorog, saléndro
sundanese gamelan genres
Sundanese gamelan genres
  • gamelan saléndro (gamelan for dance, puppetry, and entertainment)
  • gamelan degung (aristocratic gamelan)
  • ketuk tilu and jaipongan dance
sundanese bamboo genres
Sundanese bamboo genres
  • angklung (tuned bamboo rattles)
  • calung (beaten bamboo tubes)
sundanese zither based genres
Sundanese zither-based genres
  • pantun (epic narrative)
  • tembang Sunda (aristocratic sung poetry)
  • kacapi-suling (instrumental zither and flute music)
sundanese music and musicians
Sundanese music and musicians
  • contexts for performance
  • joining in (kaul)
  • ambivalence toward music specialists
questions for discussion2
Questions for Discussion
  • What are the differences between Javanese and Sundanese music?
  • What is the relationship between the Javanese balungan and garapan?
  • What is the relationship between music and dance in Java?
balinese overview
Balinese overview
  • importance of the arts
  • use of gamelan ensembles
  • change and renewal in traditional music
balinese cultural history
Balinese cultural history
  • Javanese influence and establishment in Bali
  • changes in court ensembles
  • shift from the court to the villages
balinese music theory
Balinese music theory
  • form and structure (stratified polyphony, interlocking parts, cyclic structure)
  • modes and systems of tuning (pélog and sléndro vs. patutan and saih)
  • linkage of tuning system with particular ensembles
balinese musical contexts
Balinese musical contexts
  • organization of musicians into sekaha
  • ritual contexts for performance (temples, festivals)
  • embodiment of ritual elements: thought; sound, word, voice; action
music in balinese cosmology
Music in Balinese cosmology
  • worldview based on threes and tripartite divisions
  • similarity of musical organization to cosmological organization
  • interrelationship of music with other cultural systems
balinese musical instruments
Balinese musical instruments
  • idiophones
  • membranophones
  • aerophones
  • chordophones
balinese orchestras and ensembles
Balinese orchestras and ensembles
  • gamelan gong
  • gong kebyar
  • gamelan Semar pegulingan
  • gamelan pelégongan
  • gamelan angklung
balinese theatrical and processional ensembles
Balinese theatrical and processional ensembles
  • gamelan gambuh
  • gamelan arja
  • gendèr wayang
  • baleganjur
balinese bamboo and wood ensembles
Balinese bamboo and wood ensembles
  • gamelan joged
  • genggong
  • gong suling
balinese sacred ensembles
Balinese sacred ensembles
  • gamelan gambang
  • gamelan selundeng
balinese vocal music
Balinese vocal music
  • kekawin
  • kidung
  • tembang
  • kecak
balinese dance
Balinese dance
  • alus/manis (refined, sweet) vs. keras/kasar (coarse, strong)
  • non-narrative dances
  • social dances
  • temple dances
balinese tourism and recent trends
Balinese tourism and recent trends
  • conflicting tourism destinations
  • patronization of the arts by tourists
  • changes wrought by tourism
questions for discussion3
Questions for Discussion
  • Why do you think the number three is so important in Balinese cosmology?
  • What has happened in Bali as a result of tourism?
  • What role does religion play in the Balinese performing arts?
nusa tenggara barat cultural geography
Nusa Tenggara Barat cultural geography
  • Lombok includes the Sasak and Balinese
  • Sumbawa include the Sasak, the Samawa, and the Mbojo
  • social contexts for music (life-cycle rites, holidays, harvests, celebrations)
  • Javanese-Balinese influences
  • Pan-Islamic influences
  • shift in Sasak cultural orientation from the former to the latter
sasak musical traditions on lombok
Sasak musical traditions on Lombok
  • music embodies religious values
  • gamelan beleq
  • gamelan rebana
  • gamelan wayang Sasak
  • varied musical contexts
  • presence of strings, winds, drums, and other percussion
  • variety of drums
  • ethnic groups include Makassarese, Buginese, Torajans, and Minahasans
  • influence of foreign trading in both dances and musical styles
  • importance of sung poetry throughout the island
  • mámarakka music of the Torajans
  • kolintang music of the Minahasans
questions for discussion4
Questions for Discussion
  • How do you think the Sasak shift to a more Islamic orientation happened?
  • How does Sasak music embody religious values?
  • Why do you think performance practices on Sulawesi are so varied?
division of borneo into malaysia indonesia and brunei darussalam
Division of Borneo into Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei Darussalam
  • Malaysia: Sabah and Sarawak; Indonesia: Kalimantan
  • high plateaus and mountain ranges
  • large rivers and dense forest contributions to human isolation
major ethnic groups
Major ethnic groups
  • Dayak, used mainly for people in Kalimantan
  • many other indigenous groups
  • Malays, Javanese, and Chinese
vocal music
Vocal music
  • songs for dancing
  • songs for narration
  • songs for religion
instrumental music
Instrumental music
  • gongs and gong chimes
  • bamboo, wooden poles, xylophones
  • stringed instruments
  • wind instruments
questions for discussion5
Questions for Discussion
  • What do you think the relationship is between indigenous and mainstream?
  • How do the indigenous people utilize their natural resources?
  • Why is the voice so important on the island?
lowland christian philippines
Lowland Christian Philippines
  • pre-Christian musical traditions
  • early Christian influences
  • liturgical and paraliturgical musical genres
  • secular music
  • musical life in the 1800s
art music of the philippines in the 20th century
Art music of the Philippines in the 20th century
  • Philippine music around 1900
  • the Anglo-American period: institutions and ensembles
  • the Japanese occupation
  • the Postwar period
  • new music
popular music in the philippines
Popular music in the Philippines
  • big bands
  • rock ‘n’ roll
  • balladic styles
  • contemporary Filipino popular music
islamic communities of the southern philippines
Islamic communities of the Southern Philippines
  • cultural geography
  • diversity in Islamic musical traditions
  • the Maguindanao
  • the Maranao
  • the Sulu archipelago
  • other instruments
  • vocal music
upland peoples of the philippines the north
Upland peoples of the Philippines: the North
  • the Bontok of Sadanga, Mountain Province
  • the Kalinga of Kalinga-Apayao Province
  • the Ifugao of Ifugao Province
  • the Northern Kalinga-Tinggian of Kalinga-Apayao Province
  • bamboo and other instrumental traditions
  • vocal music
upland peoples of the philippines the south
Upland peoples of the Philippines: the South
  • the Tiboli of Western Mindanao
  • the Kalagan of Davao Province
  • the Subanun of Zamboanga del Sur Province
  • Palawan island
upland peoples of the philippines the south cont
Upland peoples of the Philippines: the South (cont.)
  • the Tiruray of Southern Mindanao, Maguindanao Province
  • bamboo and other instrumental traditions
  • vocal music
  • musical styles
questions for discussion6
Questions for Discussion
  • What was the impact of the early Christian friars on Filipino music?
  • How do Christian (northern) and Muslim (southern) musics differ?
  • What do the upland peoples’ musics have in common with one another?