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Music of the Balkans: Bosnia and Bulgaria. Historical Overview. Bosnia was republic of Yugoslavia from 1945-1991. Declared independence: 1992. Ethnic groups: Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks

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historical overview
Historical Overview
  • Bosnia was republic of Yugoslavia from 1945-1991. Declared independence: 1992.
  • Ethnic groups: Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks
  • Religions include Orthodox Christianity (9th cent.), Catholicism, Judaism, Islam (under Ottoman Empire:1463-1878).
  • Region marked by ethnic violence.
  • Sarajevo=capital city of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
music of the highlanders
Music of the Highlanders
  • Songs tend to be polyphonic, vocal.
  • Songs used in local rite of passage festivals, with dance.
  • Girls sing with their own “singing groups” (only unmarried women sing).
ganga
Ganga
  • Vocal genre of highland villagers, sung in male and female singing groups.
  • Alternation of solo (leader) and group.
  • Short phrases, emphasis on dissonance.
  • Narrow vocal range.
  • Aesthetic goal: contribute accompanying pattern through close dissonance described as “cutting”, “chopping”, or “sobbing.”
  • Topics are gender-specific.
newly composed folk music
“Newly Composed Folk Music”
  • Songs composed in the style of folk songs. Regulated by and used to further the political aims of the state.
  • Style usually excludes rural aesthetics in favor of urban/Western standards.
  • Is NOT folk music, but a completely different genre.
  • Emerged 1960s-1980s in Yugoslavia, provided basis for young urban musicians looking for “national” style.
tamburitza orchestra
Tamburitza Orchestra
  • Played by professionals.
  • Instrumentation is “folk orchestra” made up of folk string instruments.
  • Promoted by state-managed cultural system in Yugoslavia.
  • Performed rural genres as well as newly composed folk songs.
  • CD 2/13 (lowlands wedding song)
bosnian musician mensur hatic
Bosnian Musician: Mensur Hatic
  • Balance between “national” and “international” style.
  • Living in US.
  • CD 2/14: “Last Stop Brcko” – Inspired by living near train station
overview
Overview
  • Demographics: most are ethnic Bulgarians. Turks and Rom (Gypsies) are minorities.
  • Language: Bulgarian (Slavic language)
  • Religions: Most are Eastern Orthodox
  • Under Ottoman Empire for 5 centuries
  • Like Yugoslavia, was under communist regime from 1940s to late 1980s
women s village music
Women’s Village Music
  • Women’s singing:
    • in western regions: antiphonal (2 choirs, alternating) and diaphonic (part singing, with an active part over a drone). Often end with aspiration or “yelp.”
    • Like in Bosnia, women tend to sing for courtship and rites of passages, as well as work.
    • Aesthetic goals of group singing similar to ganga: here, “to ring like a bell”
state sponsored folk music the mystery of the bulgarian voice
State-Sponsored Folk Music:“The Mystery of the Bulgarian Voice”
  • 1950s: Filip Kutev, composer, director of National Ensemble of Folk Song and Dance
  • Presented “modernized” folk songs
  • 1987: “world music” becomes marketing term. French label releases “Le Mystere des Voix Bulgares.”
ivo papasov
Ivo Papasov
  • Clarinetist, of Turkish and Rom heritage
  • Founded group Trakiya in 1974
  • Created new form of popular music based on traditional wedding music (“Balkan jazz”)
  • Style includes use of compound dance meters, improvisation, scales and ornamentation from folk music
  • Incorporation of drum set and electric instruments, as well as “polished” sound
hristianova kopanitsa
“Hristianova Kopanitsa”
  • 2+2+3+2+2
  • Begins with folk tune
  • Followed by improvised solos