Elements of the Arts Terminology and Vocabulary for Visual Art, Dance, Drama, and Music
Elements of Music • Melody – The tune or main part of a piece of music. Horizonal notation. What one hums. • Harmony – 2 or more notes played or sung at the same time. Vertical notation. • Rhythm – The organization of notes and rests to create a beat, meter, and tempo.
Elements of Music • Tone Color/Timbre – The special sound characteristics of each instrument, voice or sound. • Form – The overall plan or structure of a musical composition. • Dynamics – The loudness and softness of music. The amplitude of the sound wave. • Tempo– The speed at which a selection is played
Melody – Terminology and Components • Direction - Whether a melody moves higher or lower or remains the same. • Step – moving from one note directly to the next highest or lowest. Whole steps (Major 2nd) and half (Minor 2nds) steps. One whole step equals 2 half steps. • Skip – Moving from one note to another that skips a note in between. Interval of a 3rd, Major (4 half steps) or Minor (3 half steps).
Melody – Terminology and Components • Leap – Movement of more than a major 3rd. Large Intervals. • Pitch – The highness or lowness of sound. The frequency of the sound wave. • Shape – The shape created by the motion of a melody, moving higher, lower, or remaining on the same pitch.
Melody – Terminology and Components • Pitch Notation – Symbols used to tell a performer what pitch to play or to sing. • Treble Clef – (G Clef) Symbol used to signify higher sounding pitches. • Bass Clef – (F Clef) Symbol used to designate lower sounding pitches.
Melody – Terminology and Components • Treble Clef Lines – Bottom to Top - E, G, B, D, F - (Every Good Boy Does Fine) • Treble Clef Spaces – Bottom to Top – F, A, C, E – (Spells the word FACE)
Melody – Terminology and Components • Bass Clef Lines – Bottom to Top – G, B, D, F, A – (Good Boys Do Fine Always) • Bass Clef Spaces – Bottom to Top – A, C, E, G – (All Cows Eat Grass)
Harmony – Terminology and Components • Intervals – Distance between two notes. • Major – pattern of notes (scale) arranged in a special order w w h w w w h (w = whole step, h = half step). • Minor – pattern of notes (scale) arranged w h w w h w w (Natural) There are other types of minor scales: Melodic and Harmonic.
Harmony – Terminology and Components • Parts – separate lines in music, played or sung by different instruments or voices. • Tonic (key) - Resting or home tone. All other tones are related to the tonic. • Tonality – Relation of other tones to the tonic or home tone. • Texture – Thickness of the sound relative to harmonic structure (see next slide)
Harmony – Terminology and Components • Monophonic – Single unison part – All voices or instruments produce the same melody at the same time. • Homophonic – Different parts are sung or played at the same time, starting and ending together (Like a church hymn) • Polyphonic – Different parts are sung or played at different times, starting and ending at different times (Like a round or canon).
Rhythm – Terminology and Components • Bar Lines – Vertical lines that divide the staff into measures. • Duration – Length of time that a sound or silence lasts. • Fermata – Symbol to hold a note for a duration that is longer than normal. • Notes – Symbols for Sound • Rests – Symbols for silence
Rhythm – Terminology and Components: Notes • Whole Note – sound lasts for 4 beats • Half Note – sound lasts for 2 beats • Quarter Note – sound lasts for 1 beat • Eighth Note – sound lasts for ½ beat • Sixteenth Note – sound lasts for ¼ beat • Dot – adds ½ the value of the note or rest to the duration
Rhythm – Terminology and Components: Rests • Whole Rest – silence for 4 beats • Half Rest – silence for 2 beats • Quarter Rest – silence for 1 beat • Eighth Rest – silence for ½ beat • Sixteenth Rest – silence for ¼ beat
Rhythm – Terminology and Components: Meter • Meter – Organization of beats into a recurring pattern often notated by a meter or time signature at the beginning of a composition. • Duple Meter – Meter in a 2 Pattern (e.g., 2/4 4/4) Accent on down beat and secondary accent on beat 3 in 4/4 time. • Triple Meter – Meter in a 3 Pattern (e.g., ¾, 6/8) Accent on the down beat.
Rhythm – Terminology and Components: Meter continued • Simple Meter – Basic beat pattern such as 2/4 or ¾ with one accent per measure. • Compound Meter –Beat patterns where each main beat is divided such as 2/4 or 6/8 with more than one accent per measure. • Asymmetrical Meter – Beat patterns that are uneven in number (e.g., 5/4, 7/4, 5/8) where it is not duple or triple, but combinations of the two.
Rhythm – Terminology and Components: Tempo • Tempo – Speed at which music is played or performed. • Adagio – Slow • Largo – Very Slow • Andante – Medium • Moderato – Medium • Allegro – Fast • Vivace – Very Fast
Tone Color/Timbre - Terminology and Components • Instrument Families – Instruments grouped by common characteristics • Orchestral Instrument Families: Woodwind, Brass, String, Percussion, Keyboard • Anthropological Classification of Instruments: Aerophones, Chordophones, Membranophones, Idiophones, Electrophones.
Woodwind Instruments • Flute • Piccolo • Clarinet • Oboe • English Horn • Bassoon • Contrabassoon • Saxophone
Brass Instruments • Trumpet • French Horn • Trombone • Tuba • Baritone Horn • Euphonium • Sousaphone • Cornet • Bugle
String Instruments • Violin • Viola • Cello • String Bass • Guitar • Banjo • Mandolin • Harp
Percussion Instruments • Snare Drum • Bass Drum • Timpani • Triangle • Xylophone • Bells • Chimes
Keyboard Instruments • Piano • Organ • Harpsichord • Synthesizer – Electronic Keyboard
Anthropology Classifications • Aerophones – Sound produced by air. • Chordophones – Sound produced by string. • Membranophones – Sound produced by skins. • Idiophones – Sound performed by striking or shaking – physical extension of the body. • Electrophones – Sound produced electronically.
Form - Terminology and Components • Binary – Two sections. • Ternary – Three sections. • AB – Binary with 2 different sections. • ABA – Ternary with 2 different sections and then the first repeated at the end. • Call and Response – a soloist makes a statement and the group “answers” or responds together.
Form - Terminology and Components • Repeat Signs – Symbols that indicate to the musician that something should be played or sung again. • Round (Canon) - Performers sing or play the same melody entering at different times. • Strophic – Verse and Chorus. Verse is often new material each time while chorus is usually a repetition of the same thing after each verse.
Form - Terminology and Components • Through-Composed – No repeated material in any part of the composition • Rondo – ABACABA – 3 sections repeated in this pattern • Others covered later in the course in style periods: Mass, Chant, Motet, Opera, Symphony, Concerto, Theme and Variations.
Dynamics - Terminology and Components • Forte (f) – loud • Mezzo Forte (mf) – moderately loud • Fortissimo (ff) – very loud • Piano (p ) – Soft • Mezzo Piano (mp) – moderately soft • Pianissimo (pp) – very soft
Dynamics - Terminology and Components • Crescendo – gradually get louder • Decrescendo – gradually get softer • Diminuendo – get softer • Sforzando (sfz) – suddenly get louder • Subito Piano – suddenly get softer
Style and Genre in Music • Style – Individual way elements are put together dictated by time period, composer, group, or culture. • Genre – Type or category of music.
Bluegrass Blues Country Folk Games Lullabies Marches Reggae Zydeco Patriotic Popular Rap Rock Spiritual Work Song Protest song Calypso Salsa Genre in Music – By no means all inclusive!
Elements and Components of Visual Art • Elements of Art • Principles of Design • Styles • Subject Matter • Processes • Media • Purpose
Elements of Art – Basic parts of a work of art • Color – Caused by the amount of reflected light, hue. • Form – Unit that has length, width, and depth (3 dimensions) such as a cube, pyramid, cone, sphere, or cylinder • Line – A mark that moves through space varying in length, width, direction, and color
Elements of Art continued • Shape – Area enclosed by a line that has length and width (2 dimensional) such as a square, rectangle, triangle, or circle. • Texture – The way a surface looks or feels: rough, smooth, prickly, furry, etc. • Space - Area used by an art work. • Value - Intensity of colors
Color • Color group – a family of related hues: warm, cool, neutral • Cool colors: greens, blues, and purples • Warm colors: yellows, oranges, and reds • Neutral colors: blacks, whites, browns, and grays.
Color • Primary Colors – Hues from which all other colors are made – red, yellow, and blue. • Secondary colors – Hues mixed from 2 primary colors – Orange (red/yellow), Green (blue/yellow), and Purple (red/blue)
Principles of Design – Concepts that guide artists in creation and organization of their artwork • Balance – How elements are arranged to show a sense of weight. • Radial - Balanced around a line. • Symmetrical – Equally balanced on either side of a central line or point. • Asymmetrical - Unequally balanced on either side of a central line or point.
Principles of Design continued • Contrast – An obvious difference between two things (light/dark, thick/thin, large/small) • Emphasis – Focal point or drawing attention to important areas or objects in a work. • Pattern – Repetition of line, shape, or color in a work of art.
Styles • Abstract – Not realistic – adds or subtracts details to create a personal design or view. • Nonobjective – Lines, shapes, and colors are the subject, No recognizable objects. • Realistic – Shows how something might really look such as a person, object, or scene.
Subject Matter – What the art work is about • Portrait – Person, Animal, or group of people – Focus on face or faces. • Landscape – View of a natural outdoor scene such as a forest or fields. • Still Life – Depiction of an arrangement of inanimate objects.
Processes - Methods of producing a work • Collage – Made with torn or cut fabric or paper. • Drawing – Made with dry media such as pencil or crayon. • Painting – made with wet media such as tempera, oil, or watercolor. • Pottery – Making objects with clay, hardened by firing in a kiln.
Processes continued • Sculpture – Modeling, Carving, or joining of materials into a 3 dimensional form. • Weaving – Use of thread or yarn to produce cloth on a loom.
Clay Crayon Fabric Metal Paint Paper Papier Mache Pencil Stone Wood Yarn Cloth Media – Materials Used to Create Art
Purpose - Reasons People Make Art • Fine Art – Meant to be observed, viewed, or admired. • Decorative Art – Embellishment of the surface of objects. • Expressive Art – Shows emotions or ideas. • Practical Art (Functional) – Meant to be used for a purpose • Narrative Art – Describes or illustrates experiences.
Drama Vocabulary • Elements of Drama • Elements of Production • Elements of Performance • Creative Dramatics • Styles
Elements of Drama – Essential Components of a Dramatic Production • Dialogue – A conversation between 2 or more characters to express thoughts, feelings, and action. • Conflict – The struggle between opposing forces, ideas, or interests. • Monologue – A long speech made by one person, often called a soliloquy. • Plot or Storyline – The plan of action or events of the story. A plot has a beginning, a middle, and an end.
Elements of Production – Aspects of a play outside of the dramatic elements that aid in telling the story. • Costumes – A style or characteristic of a particular country, period, or people and often worn in a play. Costumes also give information about: Character, Setting, Time, Social status, and other important information relative to the plot.