Chapter 12: The American Presidency. Presidential Functions. Interest representation Rule initiation Rule application (chief executive officer of the federal bureaucracy). Presidential Functions. 4. Rule interpretation through nominating federal judges and top regulatory officials
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(chief executive officer
of the federal bureaucracy)
4. Rule interpretation through nominating federal judges and top regulatory officials
5. Resolves conflicts
No top executive under the Articles of Confederation
Not all of the constitutional framers wanted a presidential office
The Federalist 69 addresses these arguments
Article 2 of the US Constitution
Implied powers – argument that the constitutional framers gave the president certain implied powers in order to do what is necessary to preserve national security
3. The president can nomination and with the advice and consent of the Senate appoint ambassadors, public ministers, and consuls.
4. The president is authorized to receive ambassadors and public leaders.
7. Must provide a state of the union address to congress and can offer legislation at other times
8. Veto subject to congressional override
Chief of State
Manager of Prosperity
Chief of party
Bully Pulpit—term coined by Theodore Roosevelt—refers to effective communication
These were the sources mentioned earlier.
They come from:
Pocket veto—by taking no action, the president can let the bill die
example: Richard Nixon
3. Powers are not self-executing so must make effort
Treaties require Senate approval
President can recommend legislation but Congress must pass
President can veto but Congress can override
Supreme Court can overrule
The 22nd amendment limits the President to two terms—additional check and balance
(requires majority of votes in the House)
(2/3 vote Senate)
White House Staff
Office of Management & Budget (OMB)
National Security Council (NSC)
Miscellaneous agencies and special
from President to President
Role of President is strong b/c can respond quickly
Complexities of international relations
Congress ratifies treaties and appts.
Congress raises and supports armies, provides and maintains the navy and appropriates money.
Congress relugates the armed forces and provides for calling forth the militia
November 7, 1973
Nixon vetoed and congress overrode
Law spells out the conditions under which a president can deploy troops and commit them to hostilities (status reports, consultation, etc)
President’s constitutional powers less imposing
Popular support may vary
Conflicting demands from constituencies