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Chapter 7. Attitudes. A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues. Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an Attitude Object . An attitude is: Lasting because it tends to endure over time.

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Attitudes

attitudes
A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues.

Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an Attitude Object.

An attitude is:

Lasting because it tends to endure over time.

General because it applies to more than a momentary event.

Attitudes help us make all forms of choices such as:

Very product-specific behaviors, and

More general consumption-related behaviors.

Attitudes
the functions of attitudes

Value-Expressive

Consumer’s Values

or Self-Concept

Utilitarian

Reward and

Punishment

Attitude

Functions

Knowledge

Need for Meaning,

Order & Structure

The Functions of Attitudes

By Identifying the Dominant Function a Product Serves for Consumers - What Benefitsit Provides - Marketers Can Emphasize These Benefits in Communications & Packaging.

Ego-Defensive

Protect Person

From Threats

the abc model of attitudes

Affect

Way a Consumer

Feels

The ABC Model of Attitudes

Components of an

Attitude

Behavior

Person’s Intentions

to Do

Cognition

Consumer’s

Beliefs

hierarchies of effects
Hierarchies of Effects

Standard Learning Hierarchy

ATTITUDE

Based on Cognitive Information Processing

Beliefs

Affect

Behavior

Low-Involvement Hierarchy

ATTITUDE

Based on Behavioral Learning Processes

Beliefs

Affect

Behavior

Experiential Hierarchy

ATTITUDE

Based on Hedonic Consumption

Affect

Behavior

Beliefs

attitudes toward the advertisement
Attitudes Toward the Advertisement

The Attitude Toward the Advertisement is Defined as a Predisposition to Respond in a Favorable or Unfavorable Manner to a Particular Advertising Stimulus During a Particular Exposure Occasion.

Determinants Include:

Degree to Which the Ad Affects Viewers’ Arousal Levels

Attitude Toward Advertiser

Evaluations

of the

Ad Execution

Itself

Mood Evoked by the Ad

forming attitudes
An Attitude can form in several different ways depending on the Hierarchy of Effects and how the attitude is learned.

It can occur because of:

Classical Conditioning, i.e. Attitude Object is paired with a catchy jingle.

Instrumental Conditioning, i.e. consumption of the Attitude Object is reinforced.

Complex Cognitive Process, i.e. teenager models behavior of friends and media figures.

Forming Attitudes
forming attitudes8

Internalization

Identification

Forming Attitudes

Levels of Commitment to an Attitude

Compliance

Consumers Value Harmony Among Their Thoughts,

Feelings, and Behaviors, and They are Motivated

to Maintain Uniformity Among These Elements.

Degree of Commitment

The Consistency Principle

cognitive dissonance and harmony among values
Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony Among Values
  • States that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take some action to resolve this “dissonance”.
  • Theory focuses on situations in which two Cognitive Elements are inconsistent with one another.
    • Cognitive Elements can be something that a person believes about himself, a behavior he performs, or an observation about his surroundings.
  • Dissonance reduction can occur either by eliminating, adding, or changing elements.
social judgment theory
Social Judgment Theory

Latitudes of Acceptance and Rejection

Assimilation

Attitude Anchor

Contrast

Latitude of

Acceptance

Latitudes of Rejection

balance theory
Balance Theory

Considers Relations Among Elements a Person Might Perceive as Belonging Together and Desires the Relations Among the Elements in a Triad to be Harmonious, or Balanced.

A Person and His/ Her Perceptions (+ or - )

Triad

Some Other Person or Object

An Attitude Object

Marketers May Use Celebrities to Endorse Products to Achieve Balance.

multiattribute attitude models

Attributes

Beliefs

Importance

Weights

Multiattribute Attitude Models

Models Assume That a Consumer’s Attitude (Evaluation) of an Attitude Object Will Depend on the Beliefs He or She Has About Several or Many Attributes of the Object.

the fishbein model
The Fishbein Model

The Fishbein Model is the Most Influential Multiattribute Model and It Measures Three Components of Attitudes:

Salient Beliefs

About

the Object That

Are Considered

During Evaluation

Object-Attitude

Linkages, or The

Probability That a

Particular Object Has

an Important

Attribute

Evaluation of Each

of the

Important Attributes

fishbein model
Formed by integrating (summing) the separate evaluations of the salient beliefs (ei), weighted by the strength of each beliefs (bi), to create an overall evaluation or attitude (Ao).

Ao = Sbiei

Fishbein Model
how beliefs are acquired
Direct experience with product.

Information processing

information from outside sources (friends)

Vicarious experience

Inferences

How Beliefs Are Acquired
strategic implications of the multiattribute model

Capitalize on

Relative Advantage

Strengthen Perceived

Product / Attribute

Linkages

Add a New Attribute

Influence Competitors’

Ratings

Strategic Implications of the Multiattribute Model
attitude behavior relationship
Weak empirical relationship between attitude and behavior

Why?

Overall evaluation of product (Ao) not tied to situational factors while behaviors, in contrast, always occur in a situational context or are highly influenced by the environment.

Attitude-Behavior Relationship
using attitudes to predict behavior
Using Attitudes to PredictBehavior

The Extended Fishbein Model is Called the “Theory of Reasoned Action” and Includes the Following Modifications:

Social

Pressure

Intentions

Versus

Behavior

Attitude

Toward

Buying

the theory of reasoned action
Reflects the assumption that consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative actions and choose the behavior which leads to the most desirable consequences.The Theory of Reasoned Action
obstacles to predicting behavior in the theory of reasoned action

Obstacles to Predicting Behavior

Design

Time-Frame

Locus of Control

Correspondence

Basic Assumptions

Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action

Attitude Accessibility

theory of trying

Amount of Control Over Situation

Expectations of Success or Failure

Social Norms

Attitudes Toward the Process of Trying

Frequency of Past Trying of Behavior

Recentness of Past Trying of Behavior

Theory of Trying

States That the Criterion of Behavior in the Reasoned Action Model Should be Replaced With Trying to Reach a Goal.

Recognizes That Additional Factors Might Intervene Between Intent and Performance Such As:

tracking attitudes over time

Changes in Different Age Groups

Lifecycle, Cohort and Historical Effects

Tracking Attitudes Over Time

Attitude Tracking Programs Allow Researchers to Analyze Attitude Trends Over an Extended Period of Time. Some Dimensions To Include in Attitude Tracking Programs Include:

Scenarios About the Future

Future Plans and Confidence in the Economy

Identification of

Change Agents