Chapter 7. Attitudes. A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues. Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an Attitude Object . An attitude is: Lasting because it tends to endure over time.
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Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an Attitude Object.
An attitude is:
Lasting because it tends to endure over time.
General because it applies to more than a momentary event.
Attitudes help us make all forms of choices such as:
Very product-specific behaviors, and
More general consumption-related behaviors.Attitudes
Need for Meaning,
Order & StructureThe Functions of Attitudes
By Identifying the Dominant Function a Product Serves for Consumers - What Benefitsit Provides - Marketers Can Emphasize These Benefits in Communications & Packaging.
Standard Learning Hierarchy
Based on Cognitive Information Processing
Based on Behavioral Learning Processes
Based on Hedonic Consumption
The Attitude Toward the Advertisement is Defined as a Predisposition to Respond in a Favorable or Unfavorable Manner to a Particular Advertising Stimulus During a Particular Exposure Occasion.
Degree to Which the Ad Affects Viewers’ Arousal Levels
Attitude Toward Advertiser
Mood Evoked by the Ad
It can occur because of:
Classical Conditioning, i.e. Attitude Object is paired with a catchy jingle.
Instrumental Conditioning, i.e. consumption of the Attitude Object is reinforced.
Complex Cognitive Process, i.e. teenager models behavior of friends and media figures.Forming Attitudes
Latitudes of Acceptance and Rejection
Latitudes of Rejection
Considers Relations Among Elements a Person Might Perceive as Belonging Together and Desires the Relations Among the Elements in a Triad to be Harmonious, or Balanced.
A Person and His/ Her Perceptions (+ or - )
Some Other Person or Object
An Attitude Object
Marketers May Use Celebrities to Endorse Products to Achieve Balance.
The Fishbein Model is the Most Influential Multiattribute Model and It Measures Three Components of Attitudes:
the Object That
Linkages, or The
Probability That a
Particular Object Has
Evaluation of Each
Ao = SbieiFishbein Model
Product / Attribute
Add a New Attribute
RatingsStrategic Implications of the Multiattribute Model
Overall evaluation of product (Ao) not tied to situational factors while behaviors, in contrast, always occur in a situational context or are highly influenced by the environment.Attitude-Behavior Relationship
The Extended Fishbein Model is Called the “Theory of Reasoned Action” and Includes the Following Modifications:
Locus of Control
Basic AssumptionsObstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action
Expectations of Success or Failure
Attitudes Toward the Process of Trying
Frequency of Past Trying of Behavior
Recentness of Past Trying of BehaviorTheory of Trying
States That the Criterion of Behavior in the Reasoned Action Model Should be Replaced With Trying to Reach a Goal.
Recognizes That Additional Factors Might Intervene Between Intent and Performance Such As:
Lifecycle, Cohort and Historical EffectsTracking Attitudes Over Time
Attitude Tracking Programs Allow Researchers to Analyze Attitude Trends Over an Extended Period of Time. Some Dimensions To Include in Attitude Tracking Programs Include:
Scenarios About the Future
Future Plans and Confidence in the Economy