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WELCOME. Acknowledgement

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Acknowledgement

Any survey work is impossible with out any support of expert and professional and that study is not an exception. Therefore First of all I would like to express my deep sense indebted to Dr. MeenakshiSrivastava. Head of the department of zoology university of Lucknow. This able guidance encouragement and timely suggestion provided me incentive to work on the problem assigned to me.

Thanks are more than due to Dr.NirupmaAgarwal professor of zoology department for providing the necessary facilities in the department. I am highly thankful to Dr.A.M.Sexenaprofessor of zoology department. Finally, I am especially indebted to Dr. AmitaKanuajialecturer of zoology department who have not only blessed me but also remained a tower of strength for inspiration and encouragement.

Reena Devi

808024

M.sc.final(zoology)

University of Lucknow

contents

Protozoa classification (Levine et al (1980) ).

Life cycle of different protozoan parasites.

Contents
phylum protozoa gr protos first zoon animal

Gereral characters-

These are microscopic, animalcule but few are visible to the unaided eyes.

Spherical , amoeboid ,ovoid ,spindle, cup shaped.

Body is a cellular.

Free living.

Protoplasm, differentiated into ectoplasm, endoplasm.

Nutrition may be holozoic (animal like), halophytic(plant like),saprophytic.

Locomotion by pseudopodia(rhiopoda),flagella(mastigophora),

cilia(ciliata).

8. protozoans two type of nuclei(macronucleus)and nucleus(dimorphic).

Phylum- protozoagr..protos=first,zoon=animal
protozoa

SARCOMASTIGOPHORA

LABYRINTHOMORPHA

APICOMPLEXA

MICROSPORA

ASCETOSPORA

MYXOZOA

CILIOPHORA

*

Protozoa
sarcomastigophora

SUBPHYLUM

MASTIGOPHORA

OPALINATA

SARCODINA

SARCOMASTIGOPHORA
mastigophora

C

L PHYTOMASTIGOPHORA

A O- EUGLENIDA Ex- Euglena

So-DINOFLAGELLIDA Ex- Noctiluca

S ZOOMASTIGOPHORA

o-KINETOPLASTIDA Ex-Trypanosoma, Leishmania

o-DIPLOMONADIDA Ex-Giardia

o-TRICHOMONADIDA Ex- Trichomonas

MASTIGOPHORA
opalinata
OPALINATA

class-OPALINATEA

Order-OPALINIDA

e.gOPLINA

sarcodina

SUPERCLASS –Rhizopoda

C

Lobosea

L s

u

A b Gymnamoebia

o-Amoebeda Ex-Amoeba

S c

l Arcellinida Ex-Arcella

S a

s

s

Granuloreticulasea

o-ForamanifridaEx-Polystomella(Elphidium)

SARCODINA
apicomplexa

CLASS

SPOROZOEA

Gregarina

s.O-Gregarinida Ex-Monocystis, Gregarina

C.

Coccidia

o-Eococcidida Ex- Plasmodium, Eimeria

APICOMPLEXA
ciliophora

CLASS

KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA

S.C.-VESTIBULIFEREA

o-TRICHOSTOMATIDA Ex-Balantidium

S.C.-SUCTORIA

o-SUCTORIDA Ex- Ephelota

POLYMENOPHORA

S.C - SPIROTRICHIA

o- HETEROTRICHIDA Ex- Stentor , Nyctotherus

OLIGOMENOPHORA

S.C.-HYMENOSTOMATIA

O-HYMENOSTOMATIDIA EX- Paramecium

S.C PERITRICHIA

o-PERITRICHIDA Ex- Vorticella

CILIOPHORA
sarcomastigophora13

Simple nucleus.

  • Locomotion through Flagella, Pseudopodia.
  • Reproduction through Syngamy
SARCOMASTIGOPHORA
s p mastigophora

Commonly called flagellate.

  • Locomotion through flagellum.
  • Body covered with pellicle.
  • Nutrition may be Holophytic, Saprozoic, Holozoic.
S.P-Mastigophora
class phytomastiphora

Presence of Chromatophore.

  • Nutrition may be Holophytic or Mixiotrophic.
  • Paramylon is reserve food.
  • Reproduction take place by longitudinal binary fission.
Class. Phytomastiphora
order euglenida

Body covered with Pellicle.

  • One or two flagella.
  • Nutrition holophytic or saprozoic.
  • Reproduction by longitudinal binary fission.

e.g. Euglena.

Order Euglenida
class zoomastigophora

Absence of Chromatophores.

  • Two or more flagella.
  • Holozoic or saprozoic nutrition.
  • Reproduction through binary fission.
Class Zoomastigophora
order kinetoplastida

Mostly parasitic.

  • Nutrition holozoic or saprozoic.
  • Reprodution by binary fissioin.
  • Mostly pathogenic (disease causing in man and domestic animal).

e.g. Trypanosoma.

Order- kinetoplastida
subphylum opalinata

Body covered with cilia.

  • Monomorphic nuclei are present.
  • Reproduction by symmetogenic.
  • Endoparasite in large intestine of frog.

e.g. Opalina.

Subphylum-Opalinata
sub phylum sarcodina

Locomotion and feeding by pseudopodia.

  • Body is amoeboid.
  • Single nucleus.
  • Nutrition is holozoic, Saprozoic.
  • Reproduction by binary fission.
Sub-phylum Sarcodina
oreder amoebida

Body is amoeboid.

  • Naked without Skelton.
  • Test or shell absent.

e.g. Amoeba.

Oreder-Amoebida
order arcellinida

Body enclosed in one chambered shell.

  • Lobose pseudopodia.
  • Fresh water forms.

e.g. Arcella.

Order-Arcellinida
phylum apicomplexa

Apical complex.

  • Consisting of polar ring, rhoptries, micronemes, conoid.
  • Cilia absent.
  • Reproduction by syngamy.
Phylum-Apicomplexa
order gregarinida

Mature trophozoites large and extra cellular.

  • Reproduction by sexual with sporogony.
  • Spore contains eight sporozoites.

e.g. Monocystis.

Order-Gregarinida
order eococcidida

Trophozoite is intracellular.

  • Parasite of vertebrates, insect, worms.

e.g. Plasmodium, Eimeria.

Order-Eococcidida
order microsporida

Spores are unicellular.

  • Intra cellular in arthropods and vertebrates.

e.g. Nosemabombycis, causedPebrinedisease in silkworm larvae.

Order-Microsporida
phylum ciliophora

Simple and compound cilia.

  • Two types of nuclei.
  • Reproduction by conjugation,Autogamy, Cytogamy.

e.g. Paramecium,

Balantidium

Phylum-Ciliophora
classification 1965 by john and bovee

Phylum Protozoa

Mastigophora

Sacrodina Ciliata

Opalinate

eg-opalina Sporozoa

Classification (1965) BY -John and bovee
super class 1 mastigophora

PHYTOMASTIGOPHOREAZOOMASTIGOPHOREA

1-CHRYSOMONADIDA 1-CHAONOFLAGELLIDA

Eg-Chrysamaedaeg- Proterospongia

2-CRYPTOMONADIDA 2-RHIZOMASTIGIDA

Eg-Cryptomonaseg-Mastigamoeba

3-DINOFLAGELLIDA 3-KINETOPLASTIDA

Eg-Ceratium ,Noctilucaeg-Leishmania

4-EUGLENIDA 4-DIPLOMONADIDA

Eg-Euglenaeg- Giardia

5- VOLVOCIDA 5-TRICHOMONADIDA

Eg-VolvoxPandorina 6- HYPERMASTIGIDA

6- CHLOROMONADIDA eg- Trichonympha

Eg-Vacuolaria

Super class 1- Mastigophora
super class 3 sarcodina gr sarcos fleshy podos foot

classes

HYDRAULEA AUTOTRACTEA

1-AMOEBIDA 1-PROTEOMYXIDA

Eg- Amoeba, eg-Pseudospora

Entamoeba 2-HELIOZODA

2-ARCELLINIDA eg-Actinophrys

Eg-Arcella,difflugia 3-RADIOLARIDA

3-MYCETOZOIDA eg-Thalassicola

Eg-Badhamia 4-FORAMANIFERIDA

eg-Elphidium

Super class 3- Sarcodina(Gr..sarcos=fleshy, podos=foot)
super class 4 sporozoa

TELOSPOREA CNIDOSPOREA ACNIDOSPOREA

1-MYXOSPORIDA 1-TOXOPLASMIDA

1-GREGARINIDIA eg-Myxobolus eg-Toxoplsma

Eg-Monocystis Myxidium

GREGARINA

2- COCCIDIA 2-MICROSPORIDA 2-HAPLOSPORIDA

Eg-Eimeria eg-Nosemaeg-Haplasporidium

Isopora Ictrhyosporidium

3-HAEMOSPORIDIA

Eg-Plasmodium

SUPER CLASS 4- (SPOROZOA)
superclass 5 ciliate

HOLOTRICHEA PERITRICHEASUCTOREASPIROTRICHEA

1-GYMNOSTOMATIDA 1-PERITRICHIDA 1-SUCTORIDA 1-HETEROTRICHIDA

EgProrodon eg-Vorticellaeg-Ephelotaeg Nyctotherus

2-TRICHOSTOMATIDA Podophrya 2-OLIGOTRICHIDA

Eg-Balantidiumeg-Strombidium

3-CHONOTRICHIDA 3-HYPOTRICHIDA

Eg-Spirochona eg-Stylonychia

4-ASTOMATIDA

Eg-Anoplophyra

5-HYMENSTOMATIDA

Eg-Paramoecium

Superclass -5- (ciliate)
protozoa 1980

1-SARCOMASTIGOPHORA

2- APICOMPLEXA

3-MICROSPHORA

NOT4- ASCETOSPORA

CONSIDERED

5- MYXOZOA

6- CILIOPHORA (e.g-Balantidium, Nyctotherus)

Protozoa(1980)
part 1 sarcomastigophora

MASTIGOPHORAOPALINATE SARCODINA

CLASS (AMOEBAE)

ZOOMASTIGOPHORA

ORDER

KINETOPLASTIDA RETORTAMONADIDA DIPLOMONADIDA TRICHOMONADIDA

eg- Chilomastix, eg- Giardiaeg-Trichomonas,

S.ORetortamonasDientamoeba

.

TRYPANOSOMATINA

Eg.– Trypanosoma,

Leishmania

part-1-Sarcomastigophora

RHIZOPODA

Eg,-Entamoeba,

Naegleria

part 2 apicomplexa

class

Sporozoea

eg-Monocystiseg-Isopora, eg-Babesia,

Toxoplasma,Theileria

Plasmodium.

Part – 2 - Apicomplexa

1. 2. 3

GREGARINIA COCCIDIA PIROPLASMIA

reference

Levine et al (1980).

J.D.Smith.

K.K.Tripathi.

Reference