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Communism and the Cold War. Early Soviet Union under communism. Lenin comes to power by means of a disciplined hierarchical party, soon including what would become the KGB. First four years, civil war with Czar supporters, aided by U.S. 1921 Introduced the New Economic Policy 1924 Lenin dies.

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early soviet union under communism
Early Soviet Union under communism
  • Lenin comes to power by means of a disciplined hierarchical party, soon including what would become the KGB.
  • First four years, civil war with Czar supporters, aided by U.S.
  • 1921 Introduced the New Economic Policy
  • 1924 Lenin dies
the general secretary emerges
The General Secretary emerges
  • Lenin’s testament
  • By 1927 Stalin emerges as most powerful figure
  • 1929 rejects NEP, begins forced industrialization
  • in the countryside, collectivization
  • millions starve
  • 1930s, purges and show trials
  • 100,000s executed, maybe 5 million died in gulag
great patriotic war
Great Patriotic War
  • USSR was probably most responsible for Allied victory
  • also suffered the most--over 20 million died
relative thaw
(Relative) thaw
  • 1953 Stalin dies
  • 1956 Krushchev gives “secret speech” denouncing Stalin and the cult of personality
  • reorients economy more towards consumer goods, housing
post war period
Post war period
  • expanded soviet sphere--in defiance of Yalta Accord
  • --buffer or expansionism?
us response
US response
  • 1947 Truman announces that US will aid any country resisting “outside pressures”
  • lesson learned from appeasing Hitler
  • Marshall Plan
  • US provides 13 billion to western Europe (then Japan, Korea, and Taiwan) to rebuild
cold war intensifies
Cold War intensifies
  • 1948 Berlin blockade and airlift
  • 1949 Soviets test the atomic bomb
  • China “goes communist”
  • America “goes McCarthyite”
china since 1949
China--since 1949
  • 1958-60 “Great Leap Forward”
  • Mao orders collectivization, backyard foundaries
  • 20-30 million die through starvation
  • 1962 break with Soviet Union obvious
  • 1966-76 “Cultural Revolution”
  • universities close, Red Guards run amok, “counter-revolutionaries” killed
  • 1978 period of (economic) liberalization begins under Deng Xiaoping
proxy wars
Proxy wars
  • “minor conflicts” around the world
  • Major troop deployments:
  • 1950-53 Korea
  • 1965-73 Vietnam
  • 1979-89 Afghanistan
close call for world war iii
Close call for World War III
  • Cuban missile crisis 1962
the big surprise
The big surprise
  • The end of European communism
  • 1970s and 80s religious and cultural dissent
  • failing economies
  • Reagan’s role?
new blood at the kremlin
New blood at the Kremlin
  • 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary
  • initiates reforms--glasnost and perestroika
  • 1988 allows contested elections within the Communist Party
movement in eastern europe
Movement in Eastern Europe
  • 1980s rise of “Solidarity”--suppressed
  • 1988 illegal “Solidarity” shipworkers, with encouragement from the Pope, go on strike
  • 1989 Polish Communist party (and Gorbachev) allows Solidarity to compete in national elections
  • Solidarity victory
east germany
East Germany
  • Very little reform--the Stasi
  • Gorbachev calls for change in East Germany
  • East German tourists go through Hungary to Austria--at first a few, then 10,000s
  • Berlin Wall is torn down
  • 1990 Germany reunified
back in ussr
Back in USSR
  • 1991 hardliners in the military wage a coup against Gorbachev, coup fails
  • Communist Party is abolished in Russia
  • Soviet Union is dissolved by decree
  • CIS is formed
russia backsliding under putin since 2000
Russia--backsliding under Putin since 2000?
  • nostalgia for “good old days”, and Chinese model
  • increasing control over media--especially TV
  • arrest of oligarchs on trumped up charges--Khodorkovsky
  • using Chechen war to make governorships appointed, not elected
continuing revolutions
continuing revolutions
  • “color revolutions” in Georgia, Ukraine, and Kyrgistan
who is left among communists
Who is left among Communists?
  • 5 countries:
  • China, Vietnam, Laos, North Korea, Cuba
  • And several post Communist societies have changed little
in china
In China . . .
  • 1989--crackdown at Tiananmen Square
  • in 1990s, some signs of loosening up
  • local contested elections
  • more freedom to criticize local governments
  • 1000s of NGOs allowed to organize
  • on the other hand, since 1999 Falun Gong outlawed, etc.