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Communism, Cold War and the Nuclear Threat

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  1. Communism, Cold War and the Nuclear Threat

  2. Part 1: Communism and its Evolution

  3. Origins of Communism • Communism is the political reality of a Philosophical ideal called Marxism developed by Karl Marx and Frederic Engels written in 1848

  4. Key Concepts of Marxism • Class: • Two Classes: the Proletariat (the workers) and the Bourgeoisie (the upper class which owns the means of production) • Exploitation: • The Bourgeoisie has all the power and uses this to exploit the Proletariat by not paying the workers the full value of their labour. • Alienation: • Because of this exploitation, workers are alienated from the results of their work, themselves and each other.

  5. Marxism • 1. The proletariat unite and overthrow the bourgeoisie. • Marx felt this was inevitable • 2. Dictatorship of the Proletariat • Necessary to complete the victory over the bourgeoisie • 3. Revolution spreads around the World • Again, Marx felt this was inevitable. Once the proletariat started a revolution, they would unite against the bourgeoisie in all countries. • 4. Government withers away. • Once the bourgeoisie has disappeared, there will be no more need for a government.

  6. Leninism • 1. The Vanguard Party leads the Proletariat & Peasants over the Bourgeoisie. • Lenin believes a group of “professional revolutionaries is required to lead the peasants and workers in revolution • 2. Dictatorship of the Proletariat • Lenin emphasizes the importance of this. • 3. Revolution spreads around the World • Lenin agrees with Marx. • 4. Government withers away. • Lenin agrees with Marx

  7. Stalinism 1. Vanguard Party leads the proletariat over the bourgeoisie. • Agrees with Lenin 2. Dictatorship of the Proletariat • For Stalin, this was the most important stage. He felt it was necessary to battle the bourgeoisie and that violence would be necessary to get rid of all enemies. 3. Revolution DOES NOT need to spread around the world. • Stalin believed that Socialism in One Country was possible 4. Government withers Away • Stalin agrees (in theory)

  8. Life under Stalin • Under Stalin, the Communist movement in Russia became less about giving power back to the people and more of a dictatorship. • Stalin purged all of his opponents from the communist party. Many who criticized him were executed or assassinated. • Also had many members of foreign ethnicities executed. Many others were sent to Prison Camps called Gulags. • 3.3 Million people were sent to Siberia or Central Asia in forced relocations.

  9. It is estimated that under Stalin, 4-10 million people were killed. • If you include the victims of famines caused by his collectivization of farming, the number can go as high as 30 million based on some estimates. • History books were revised to glorify Stalin and erase all mention of his political opposition.

  10. Part 2: a “cold” War?

  11. What is a “Cold” War? • Both sides actively opposed one another. • This conflict was expressed through propaganda, military coalitions, arms and technology races, and support in “proxy wars” • Neither country ever attacked each other directly, for fear of starting a nuclear war.

  12. Where Do We Fit In? • Canada was (and is) a close ally of the U.S. • We too supported capitalist economic policies and democracy. • We were among the first nations to sign onto the National Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a military alliance involving the U.S. and Western Europe designed to oppose the U.S.S.R’s Warsaw Pact.

  13. Part 3: The Nuclear Threat 1949 Soviet’s test their nuclear implosion weapon Pervasive in culture from 1949 – 1991 (and afterward) • Music • Atom and Evil • 99 Red Balloons • Blowin’ in the wind • Movies • Red Dawn • Hunt for Red October • Rocky IV • Others with looming threat theme • All alien invasion • Terminator films • Any others?

  14. Other Hit Songs • "Fire in the Sky" - Saxon (1981) • "Hammer to Fall" – Queen (1983) • "Hiroshima (song)" - Wishful Thinking (1971) • "I Come and Stand at Every Door" (based on a poem by NazımHikmet) – Pete Seeger (1962); The Byrds (1966) • "It only takes two to tango" - The Stranglers (1981) • "It's a Mistake" – Men at Work (1983) • "Killer of Giants" – OzzyOsbourne (1986) • "Killing Fields" - Scanner (1988) • "Land of Confusion" – Genesis (1986) • "Leningrad" - Billy Joel (1989) • "London Calling" – The Clash (1979) • "Manhattan Project" - Rush (1985) • "Minutes to Midnight" - Midnight Oil (1984) • "New Year's Day" - U2 (1983) • "Nikita" - Elton John (1985) • "Nuclear Winter" – Funker Vogt (2000) • "Paint Your Windows White" - Alien Stash Tin (2011) • "People are People" - Depeche Mode (1984) • "Pre-War America" – The Beatnigs (1988) • "Russians" – Sting (1985) • "Rust in Peace" – Megadeth (1990) • "Seconds - U2 (1983) • "Set the World Afire - Megadeth (1988) • "Surfin' USSR" - Ray Stevens (1988) • "Thank God For the Bomb" - OzzyOsbourne (1986) • "The American" - Simple Minds (1991) • "The Future's So Bright, I Gotta Wear Shades" - Timbuk3 (1986) • "They've Got a Bomb" – Crass (1979) • "Two Suns in the Sunset" – Pink Floyd (1983) • "Two Tribes" – Frankie Goes to Hollywood (1984) • "US Forces" - Midnight Oil (1982) • "Воля и Разум" ("Will and Reason") - Aria / Master (1985) • "When Two Worlds Collide" - Simple Minds (1981) • "Wind of Change" – Scorpions (1990) • "1999" - Prince (1982) • "2 Minutes to Midnight" – Iron Maiden (1984) • "20 Tons of TNT" – Flanders and Swann • "99 Luftballons" and "99 Red Balloons" – Nena (1983) • "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall" – Bob Dylan (1963) • "Atomic Garden" - Bad Religion (1992) • "Balls to the Wall" - Accept (1983) • "Battalions of Fear" - Blind Guardian (1988) • "Blackened" – Metallica (1988) • "Black Planet" - The Sisters of Mercy (1985) • "Brighter than a Thousand Suns" - Iron Maiden (2006) • "Breathing" - Kate Bush (1980) • "Children of the Grave" – Black Sabbath (1971) • "Cold War" – Funker Vogt (2000) • "Curfew" - The Stranglers (1978) • "Dawn Patrol - Megadeth • "Destruction Preventer" - Sonata Arctica (1999) • "Eagle Fly Free" – Helloween (1988) • "East at Easter" - Simple Minds (1983) • "Electric Funeral" - Black Sabbath (1970) • "Eve of Destruction" – P.F. Sloan (also recorded by Barry McGuire and The Turtles) (1965) • "Fight Fire with Fire" – Metallica (1984) • "Forever Young" - Alphaville (1984)

  15. Response to Threat Civil Defence • Iconic “Duck and Cover” Fallout Shelters (4:36) • What are they? Purpose? • What is meant by the term • mutually assured destruction • fallout

  16. Fallout 3

  17. Hit the Books Text 161-168 • Recap the story of Igor Gouzenko. What is the significance of the Gouzenko Affair? • Explain how Canada’s response to the communist threat differed from the American? • What is the United Nations and how does it differ from its predecessor the League of Nations? • Describe some of the structures of the UN and how they are meant to function to preserve peace • How does the “veto” impede the UN’s ability to resolve dispute between major states? • What is NATO and why did PM Mackenzie King decide to have Canada join? • What was the purpose of the early warning lines built in Canada? Why did they no longer provide any sense of safety after long range missiles became a factor? • Answer the questions in figure 17-5 • What is the spirit of the Colombo Plan?