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History and Perspectives of Internet Development in Russia By Andrey Kuprianov Historical Background Breakdown of Soviet Union (USSR) in 1991 Hyperinflation (over 2,000%) Closed country, suddenly became open Historical Background (cont.) No computer or information technology capacity

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historical background
Historical Background
  • Breakdown of Soviet Union (USSR) in 1991
  • Hyperinflation (over 2,000%)
  • Closed country, suddenly became open
historical background cont
Historical Background (cont.)
  • No computer or information technology capacity
  • No good telecommunications
  • No market of potential users
  • However - strong body of programmers
stages of internet development
Stages of Internet Development
  • Initial, or pre-Internet (1991-1993)
  • Central region spread (1994-1995) – Moscow and St. Petersburg
  • Country-wide spread (1996-2005)
  • Average lag between countries with developed Internet is 3-5 years
initial stage
Initial Stage
  • Registration of .SU (Sep, 1990) 1st level domain
  • Limited access to EUNet
  • Most popular - FIDO net (BBS)
    • Basic information
    • Email
    • File archive access
  • Mostly centralized in banks, financial companies and universities
central region spread
Central Region Spread
  • Milestone for present Internet in Russia
  • Registration of .RU (Apr, 1994)
  • Permanent access to EUNet
  • Lack of good communication lines ensured heavy reliance on satellite links (except in Moscow and St.Petersburg)
central region spread cont
Central Region Spread (cont.)
  • First internet services
    • Attempts to create academic and training networks
current stage country wide spread
Current stage: Country-wide spread
  • Moscow - Khabarovsk Trans-Siberian Radio Relay Communication Channel construction (1996)
  • Later replaced with fiber optics (1999)
  • Starting from year 1996, Russian Internet displays a quick burst of emerging services
current stage cont
Current Stage (cont.)
  • First search engine ( www.rambler.ru )
  • First internet-café in Russia named “Tetris” (St. Petersburg)
  • First free e-mail service
  • First online museum
  • First real-time broadcasting of radio
  • First online shopping, advertisement agency, an political web-sites
  • First public sue of a Russian hacker 
current stage cont10
Current Stage (cont.)
  • Development stage
    • Growth of internet users higher that the growth of services
  • Currently, all kinds of services are available
  • ADSL is gradually replacing dial-up access
  • Prices start from 15$/month (www.stream.ru ) – affordable
  • Current access through DSL and fiber-optics exceeded the dial-up access (as of 2003)
user statistics
User Statistics
  • Currently over 20 million internet users
  • Forecasted to be around 30 million by 2010
user statistics cont
User Statistics (cont.)
  • Currently near 10% of the total population of Russia use Internet
    • Indicates that Internet is becoming a mass event
  • However, income of people is far from what’s needed:
    • Income - 100$/month an up
    • Computer cost – 700$ and up.
user statistics cont14
User Statistics (cont.)
  • Internet is mostly used in the offices and homes
domain statistics
Domain Statistics
  • .RU is a preferred 1st level domain for Russian subscribers (over 97% of them)
  • Then .SU, .COM, .NET and others
  • Totally over 380,000 domain registrations as of Aug, 2005 ( http://stat.nic.ru )
domain statistics cont
Domain Statistics (cont.)
  • Hosting services on the Internet became available only in the year 2000
  • Domain registrations in Moscow and St. Petersburg are declining
    • Other regions are actively participating in the process
domain statistics cont18
Domain Statistics (cont.)
  • Internet in Russia is relatively young and so are it users
mobile internet
Mobile Internet
  • 70% of mobile users are located in Moscow and St. Petersburg
  • Total mobile “population” is slightly over 20 millions of people
  • Costs of mobile connectivity are affordable
    • Weird thing: some providers still charge incoming calls
mobile internet20
Mobile Internet
  • However, somewhat large percent of people are willing to use mobile Internet