History and perspectives of internet development in russia
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History and Perspectives of Internet Development in Russia By Andrey Kuprianov Historical Background Breakdown of Soviet Union (USSR) in 1991 Hyperinflation (over 2,000%) Closed country, suddenly became open Historical Background (cont.) No computer or information technology capacity

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Historical Background

  • Breakdown of Soviet Union (USSR) in 1991

  • Hyperinflation (over 2,000%)

  • Closed country, suddenly became open


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Historical Background (cont.)

  • No computer or information technology capacity

  • No good telecommunications

  • No market of potential users

  • However - strong body of programmers


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Stages of Internet Development

  • Initial, or pre-Internet (1991-1993)

  • Central region spread (1994-1995) – Moscow and St. Petersburg

  • Country-wide spread (1996-2005)

  • Average lag between countries with developed Internet is 3-5 years


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Initial Stage

  • Registration of .SU (Sep, 1990) 1st level domain

  • Limited access to EUNet

  • Most popular - FIDO net (BBS)

    • Basic information

    • Email

    • File archive access

  • Mostly centralized in banks, financial companies and universities


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Central Region Spread

  • Milestone for present Internet in Russia

  • Registration of .RU (Apr, 1994)

  • Permanent access to EUNet

  • Lack of good communication lines ensured heavy reliance on satellite links (except in Moscow and St.Petersburg)


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Central Region Spread (cont.)

  • First internet services

    • Attempts to create academic and training networks


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Current stage: Country-wide spread

  • Moscow - Khabarovsk Trans-Siberian Radio Relay Communication Channel construction (1996)

  • Later replaced with fiber optics (1999)

  • Starting from year 1996, Russian Internet displays a quick burst of emerging services


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Current Stage (cont.)

  • First search engine ( www.rambler.ru )

  • First internet-café in Russia named “Tetris” (St. Petersburg)

  • First free e-mail service

  • First online museum

  • First real-time broadcasting of radio

  • First online shopping, advertisement agency, an political web-sites

  • First public sue of a Russian hacker 


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Current Stage (cont.)

  • Development stage

    • Growth of internet users higher that the growth of services

  • Currently, all kinds of services are available

  • ADSL is gradually replacing dial-up access

  • Prices start from 15$/month (www.stream.ru ) – affordable

  • Current access through DSL and fiber-optics exceeded the dial-up access (as of 2003)


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User Statistics

  • Currently over 20 million internet users

  • Forecasted to be around 30 million by 2010


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User Statistics (cont.)

  • Currently near 10% of the total population of Russia use Internet

    • Indicates that Internet is becoming a mass event

  • However, income of people is far from what’s needed:

    • Income - 100$/month an up

    • Computer cost – 700$ and up.



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User Statistics (cont.)

  • Internet is mostly used in the offices and homes


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Domain Statistics

  • .RU is a preferred 1st level domain for Russian subscribers (over 97% of them)

  • Then .SU, .COM, .NET and others

  • Totally over 380,000 domain registrations as of Aug, 2005 ( http://stat.nic.ru )


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Domain Statistics (cont.)

  • Hosting services on the Internet became available only in the year 2000

  • Domain registrations in Moscow and St. Petersburg are declining

    • Other regions are actively participating in the process



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Domain Statistics (cont.)

  • Internet in Russia is relatively young and so are it users


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Mobile Internet

  • 70% of mobile users are located in Moscow and St. Petersburg

  • Total mobile “population” is slightly over 20 millions of people

  • Costs of mobile connectivity are affordable

    • Weird thing: some providers still charge incoming calls


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Mobile Internet

  • However, somewhat large percent of people are willing to use mobile Internet



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