History of Public Health in Russia. From 1800’s to 1917. The first medical faculty was established in 1775 at the University of Moscow. . Main buildings of the university in the Mokhovaya Street, 1798. . Modern transportation: cholera epidemic.
From 1800’s to 1917
Main buildings of the university in the Mokhovaya Street, 1798.
Unfortunately the great strides in modern transportation accelerated the spread of cholera from India in 1816 to the ports of the Philippines, China, Japan, Persian Gulf then north toward the Ottoman and Russian empires killing thousands by 1826.
Alexander II of Russia: The great reformer
In modern terms, the best equivalent would be primary care provider.
History of I.I. Mechnikov
Bacteriology was now championed by community physicians who saw it a s tool to be used for the benefit of the people
What is the sanitary state of Russia?-In comparison with the states of Western Europe, and even with our own Finland, it has to be admitted that it is dismal in the extreme: the percentage mortality of the population is high, the average life expectancy is short, and there is a great amount of contagious, epidemic and endemic disease
“Making Russia Healthy”—the slogan of community physicians
The opportunity for developing preventive education work in connection with such a system is practically unlimited… We may therefore look in the future, as zemstvo and municipal medicine develop and acquire the educational and preventive quality which is in accord with modern progress, for unprecedented successes in the control of preventable diseases in the great sister Republic..
From the report of
Charles Edward Amory Winslow, APHA, 1917
Stolypin and his reforms
Establishment of Narkomzdrav, Centralized public health/medical system
In 1925, the Pirogov Society was forced to disband and the Hippocratic Oath was abandoned