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  2. INSTRUCTOR Insert Instructor Name Here

  3. OBJECTIVES • Define Recycling. • Discuss the Benefits of Recycling. • Discuss the Key People in a Recycling Program. • Discuss How to do a Waste Audit. • Discuss How to Decide What to Recycle. • Discuss How to Select a Collection Contractor. • Discuss How to Design a Recycling System. • Discuss Training and Promotion. • Discuss Problems and Recommended Solutions. • Discuss Buying Recycled Products.

  4. GOALS • Understand the Definition of Recycling. • Understand the Benefits of Recycling. • Understand the Roles of Key People in a Recycling Program. • Be Familiar With How to do a Waste Audit. • Understand How to Decide What to Recycle. • Understand How to Select a Collection Contractor. • Be Familiar With How to Design a Recycling System. • Understand How to Train and Promote a Recycling Program. • Understand the Problems and Recommended Solutions. • Understand the Importance of Buying Recycled Products.

  5. BACKGROUND • In 1996, U.S. residents, businesses, and institutions produced more than 209 million tons of solid waste, which is approximately 4.3 pounds of waste per person per day, up from 2.7 pounds per person per day in 1960 • Only twenty-seven percent is recovered and recycled or composted, 17 percent is burned at combustion facilities, and the remaining 55 percent is disposed of in landfills

  6. LEARNERS • Supervisors • Facility Engineers • Maintenance Personnel • Department Managers • Building Occupants • Process Specialists • Environmental and Safety Committees

  7. OVERVIEW The goal of this course is to provide supervisors with the tools needed to run a company solid waste recycling program. It recommends practical, actions that can be carried out by facility management, maintenance personnel and building occupants. The course will help you to integrate good solid waste recycling management activities into your existing organization and identify which of your staff have the necessary skills to carry out those activities.

  8. WHAT THIS COURSE DOES NOT DO The course is not intended to provide information to run a recycling business. It does not teach the student market indicators, how to bale solid waste and how to compost. These specialties required training beyond the intended scope of this course. Where this expertise is needed, outside assistance should be solicited.

  9. RCRA addresses both hazardous waste and solid waste. - Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) Pollution Prevention Act FEDERAL LAWS

  10. Pertinent Regulations: There are no federal solid waste recycling requirements States have direct regulatory authority to require solid waste recycling There are two federal regulations which are useful to consult when developing a solid waste recycling program: 40 CFR Part 256 – Guidelines for Development and Implementation of State Solid Waste Management Plans 40 CFR Part 243 – Guidelines for the Storage and Collection of Residential, Commercial, and Institutional Solid Waste FEDERAL REGULATIONS

  11. Recycling turns materials that would otherwise become waste into valuable resources and generates a host of environmental, financial, and social benefits. After collection, materials (e.g., glass, metal, plastics, and paper) are separated and sent to facilities that can process them into new products and materials WHAT IS RECYCLING?

  12. There are at least five benefits for recycling solid waste: Economic Environmental Employee Morale Corporate Image Compliance BENEFITS

  13. Economic Potential economic advantages of waste prevention include: Reduced waste disposal fees Revenues from recycling commodities BENEFITS

  14. BENEFITS • Environmental • The environmental benefits include: • Reduced energy consumption • Reduced pollution • Conservation of natural resources • Extension of valuable landfill capacity • Stimulates the development of greener technologies • Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants

  15. BENEFITS • Employee Morale • Employees morale improves when they see the company taking steps to reduce waste through recycling • This heightened morale could increase employee enthusiasm, productivity and more waste prevention measures • Some companies use recycling revenues for employee recreation (I.e. picnics, holiday parties etc.)

  16. BENEFITS • Corporate Image • When customers and the surrounding neighborhoods see that the company is environmentally conscious, it creates a favorable image of the company • An enhanced corporate image might attract customers • Surveys show that more and more consumers consider a firm's environmental record when making purchasing decisions

  17. BENEFITS • Compliance • Reducing solid waste through recycling can also mean compliance with local or state solid waste regulations • Some communities also restrict the amount or types of waste accepted at solid waste management facilities • By implementing an aggressive recycling program, your business can help ensure compliance with these requirements

  18. Step 1. – Key People - Select a Recycling Coordinator The recycling coordinator will need to have good communication and organizational skills. Creativity, patience, persistence, a sense of humor, and good rapport with other people in your business are important character qualities If you are the owner or manager of a small business, you will probably be the coordinator, at least in the beginning KEY PEOPLE

  19. A coordinator’s role typically includes: Conduct a waste audit and determine what to recycle Selecting the contractor Designing the collection system Educating employees Tracking the program’s progress Designate area monitors to assist the coordinator in: - Keeping the collection containers free of non-recyclable material - Notifying the coordinator if containers overflow - Encouraging employee participation KEY PLAYERS

  20. Step 1. – Key People - Janitors Always involve janitors in the planning process for any recycling program Additional training may be necessary to familiarize them with new or alternative waste collection procedures Realistically assess their safety concerns and how changes will affect their workload The janitors' commitment and cooperation in executing your recycling program are crucial to success You may need to modify the janitorial contract to specify recycling services. KEY PEOPLE

  21. Step 1. – Key People - Landscape Contractors Plant waste from decorative landscaping for many downtown courtyards, atriums, and sidewalks often goes straight to landfill By working with your landscape contractor, you can potentially have plant waste hauled to a commercial composting facility KEY PEOPLE

  22. Step 1. – Key People – Food Handlers Food and other "wet wastes" contaminate dry recyclable waste unless you keep them in separate dumpsters It may be possible to reduce food waste through the suggestions of food handlers Donating food may be another alternative rather than disposal Food waste can also be recycled through composting KEY PEOPLE

  23. Step 1. – Key People - Construction Contractors The materials generated during the demolition phase of a renovation are mostly recyclable It is necessary to provide the contractor with a staging area and time in which to separate the materials If the contractor separates the materials, the value of the material can be rebated back to reduce hauling costs KEY PEOPLE

  24. Step 2. – Conduct a Waste Audit The reason to conduct a waste audit is to find out what’s in your trash The waste audit will help you identify which materials to collect for recycling, what size and type of containers you will need, and what waste could possibly be prevented in the first place Find out if your company or individual employees are already collecting any materials for recycling A waste sort or “dumpster diving” should be the first place to gather “bottom line” information and should be done just prior to refuse pickup WASTE AUDIT

  25. Step 2. – Conduct a Waste Audit Gather the following materials and resources: sorting tables a large scale for weighing the waste separate bins for each sorting category gloves surgical masks a calculator materials for recording data WASTE AUDIT

  26. Step 2. – Conduct a Waste Audit Safety First! Talk to your facility safety representative prior to doing a waste sort Wear protective clothing such as long-sleeved shirts, pants, gloves, and surgical masks If you discover any hazardous material, don’t touch it and contact your safety representative WASTE AUDIT

  27. Step 2. – Conduct a Waste Audit Once you have transferred all of the garbage to your sorting table, identify the materials you generate (for example, cardboard, office paper, and food waste) Weigh each type of material and record your findings Total the different amounts of waste found in each dumpster to find the “bottom line” Do similar waste sorts within the facility to determine what size recycling containers you’ll need and where they should be placed WASTE AUDIT

  28. Step 3. – Deciding What to Recycle Certain materials are either banned or restricted from from disposal facilities, such as: Tires Green Waste (yard trimmings) Appliances Used Oil Scrap Metal Auto Batteries Contact your landfill to find a listing of restricted materials and how these materials can be disposed DECIDING WHAT TO RECYCLE

  29. Step 3. – Deciding What to Recycle In some municipalities, businesses are required to recycle certain commodities such as: Bars and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages might be required to recycle glass Office buildings might be required to recycle office paper, newspaper and cardboard Hotels, restaurants, food courts, grocery stores, hospitals, and food manufacturers who generate large volumes of food waste might be required to recycle food waste You should contact your local solid waste regulator to determine what materials you must recycle DECIDING WHAT TO RECYCLE

  30. Step 3. – Deciding What to Recycle Target materials with reliable markets, such as: Aluminum Corrugated cardboard Used Oil Copper/Brass Office/Computer paper Tires Steel Newspaper Green Waste Glass DECIDING WHAT TO RECYCLE

  31. Step 3. – Deciding What to Recycle The following liquids may be recycled and reused on your premises in most areas with special equipment: Solvents Antifreeze Frying oil DECIDING WHAT TO RECYCLE

  32. Step 4. – Selecting a Collection Contractor In selecting a collection contractor, you are looking for good, reliable service at the best price The prices paid for recyclable materials vary with the type of material and can fluctuate dramatically from month to month Moreover, your company’s economic benefit from recycling will probably come from reduced disposal costs, rather than money paid to you from the sale of recyclables COLLECTION CONTRACTORS

  33. Step 4. – Selecting a Collection Contractor Option 1: Refuse hauler is also the recycling hauler If your refuse hauler provides both waste disposal and recycling collection, the hauler should be able to offer a combined cost/pay structure In other words, he would charge you for the hauling of both refuse and recyclables and credit you the current market value on the recyclables This can reduce your overall disposal costs or at least provide a break-even arrangement COLLECTION CONTRACTORS

  34. Step 4. – Selecting a Collection Contractor Option 2: Recycling company picks-up A second option is to have a recycling company (or processor) collect and pay you for a material or collect it at no charge/no pay, depending on the current value of each material A small collector will most likely provide no charge/no pay service If you select a recycler, you should discuss lowering disposal costs with your refuse hauler, once your recycling program is underway COLLECTION CONTRACTORS

  35. Step 4. – Selecting a Collection Contractor When you talk to the various companies to compare prices and services, ask the following questions to help you make your decision: What materials do you collect? What materials do you purchase, and how much is paid for each? Do you charge for collection of recyclables? If you’re picking up trash and recyclables, what will be the net savings in my disposal costs? Do you pick up on schedule or on call? If on schedule, how often? If on call, how much lead time is needed? COLLECTION CONTRACTORS

  36. Step 4. – Selecting a Collection Contractor Do you provide collection and/or storage containers? Will you help us organize and promote our recycling program? Are you willing to sign a long-term agreement? (A one-year minimum is recommended.) What is the allowable level of contamination? What are your reporting and accounting procedures? How long have you been in business? Once you have made the selection, include the information you have gathered in a written agreement COLLECTION CONTRACTORS

  37. Step 5. – Designing a Recycling System KEY: MAKE IT AS SIMPLE AND EASY TO RECYCLE AS IT IS TO THROW AWAY! The goal is to design a collection system that is convenient for everyone and does not incur additional labor costs DESIGNING A RECYCLING SYSTEM

  38. Step 5. – Designing a Recycling System Recyclables should flow from individual employees to area collection containers or directly to central collection/storage Place area recycling containers in convenient locations normally frequented by employees Recycling containers should look distinctly different from trash containers Place regular trash cans nearby to avoid unwanted trash getting mixed in with the recyclables DESIGNING A RECYCLING SYSTEM

  39. Step 5. – Designing a Recycling System At Desks Each employee usually gets their own small recycling tray or upright box for convenience When full, the employee empties the paper into the larger paper bins Trays and upright bins may be available from your municipality for free. DESIGNING A RECYCLING SYSTEM

  40. Step 5. – Designing a Recycling System Office Suites Some space is required in offices for recycling bins Based on weekly service, the rule-of-thumb for a white or mixed paper program is one 12-gallon container in each copy or printer area Some offices prefer 23-gallon containers, which are taller and slimmer, but are heavier when full For a beverage bottle and can program, you need one lined container per kitchen area DESIGNING A RECYCLING SYSTEM

  41. Step 5. – Designing a Recycling System Toter Bins Toter bins have wheels and lids that lock. Two sizes are available from most vendors: - the 64-gallon size holds 125 pounds of paper - the 94-gallon size holds 200 pounds Toters are versatile and can be wheeled to offices for consolidating materials when tenants move or purge old files When empty, they can be nested to save storage space and are designed to be automatically lifted and emptied by garbage or recycling trucks DESIGNING A RECYCLING SYSTEM

  42. Step 5. – Designing a Recycling System Dumpsters Most buildings have dumpsters for garbage Dumpster sizes are measured in cubic yards; one cubic yard is equal to about three toters Dumpsters are good for larger loads or bulky materials, such as cardboard They have lids which are easy to lock (which will protect materials from theft and or contamination if the dumpsters are located outside). Special garbage trucks are equipped to pick up and empty dumpsters automatically. DESIGNING A RECYCLING SYSTEM

  43. Step 5. – Designing a Recycling System Compactors Where space is limited, many buildings prefer to invest in compacting equipment Compactors come in a wide range of styles and sizes They can be rented or purchased and are often customized for a specific site or use Some of the investment can be recovered by disposal savings because you need less frequent garbage or recycling pick ups DESIGNING A RECYCLING SYSTEM

  44. Step 5. – Designing a Recycling System To select the best containers for your needs, consider the following: durability, cost, capacity, ease of handling, and attractiveness Check with local vendors on the types and styles available While containers need to be convenient for everyone, you also need to consider the work involved in emptying them By keeping in mind the needs of both employees and custodial or maintenance people you will find an acceptable balance that works for everyone involved DESIGNING A RECYCLING SYSTEM


  46. Step 5. – Designing a Recycling System Central Collection/Storage Area Determine the best location for you with your building or facility manager and your collection contractor, using these guidelines: Is the site large enough? Is there easy access to freight elevators and loading docks? Does the area meet with local fire and building codes? Are sprinklers required/in place? DESIGNING A RECYCLING SYSTEM

  47. Step 6. – Training and Promotion Phase 1: Program Announcement Announce the start of the program with a brief, upbeat memo from the head of the company The memo should highlight the benefits of the program to everyone, outline the collection procedure, and give the time for a meeting to formally introduce the recycling program and answer questions TRAINING AND PROMOTION

  48. Step 6. – Training and Promotion Phase 2: Meeting/Educational Session Encourage everyone to attend an information session about the new program The meeting should focus on the cooperative nature of recycling and the importance of each individual to its continued success Highlight the main points of the program, taking care to explain the separation and collection procedures Emphasize the benefits to the environment, the company and the employees TRAINING AND PROMOTION

  49. Step 6. – Training and Promotion Phase 3: Follow-Up Follow-up can be done as a part of a regular meeting agenda or with memos or newsletters Consistency is the key to any successful program, and recycling is no different Note how much is being taken out of the waste stream, how much was donated to charity, how big the party fund is, and so on TRAINING AND PROMOTION

  50. Problem 1: Low Participation Rate Here are some of the things you can do to stimulate participation: Solution, Part 1: Provide Information People may not know how to recycle Provide reminders to tenants in memos and other promotional pieces Check that signs explain the recycling program See the Training and Promotion Section of this training PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS