Facts • Language : Creole and French • Government: Republic; President Prime Minister and Ministers Two Chambers Senate and House. • Capital: Port au Prince • Size: 10 714 square miles • Population : 8 706 497 • Currency : La gourde • President: Rene Preval • Prime Minister :Michele Pierre Louis
Haiti or Ayti means Mountainous land and its Highest point is Pic de la selle 8 713Ft
History • The Island was dicovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492 • The spaniards enslaved the Tainos and brought diseases with them so the Tainos became extinct. • In 1517 the Spaniard started the slave. • In the early 1600’s the french settlers were effectively competing with the spanish settlers • In 1697 the Ryswick treaty divides the land into French and Spanish part.
The french part is today Haiti on the west side and the Spanish part which is the Dominican republic on the east. • It officially became a french colony. • Soon it became the most prosperous colony of France. • The colony was the size of Maryland or Belgium but but dominated the production of coffee and sugar. • The colony imported hundreds of thousands of slaves from Africa. • By 1789 it produced 40% of all the sugar and 60% of all the coffee produced in Europe.
Life in Saint Domingue • Soon after the beginning of the slave trade, Saint Domingue was divided into three classes. • The white colonists , the mulattoes and a few free blacks, and the slaves. It was a pyramid. • Slaves were considered property and they outnumbered everyone else by one to ten. • Since slavery in Saint-Domingue was ferocious slaves would runaway. • It wasn’t until 1751 that the vodou priest Mackandal organised the first organised rebellion. • In 1757 he was captured and burned at the stake.
1791 A turning point • Saint Domingue was comparable to a barrel of gunpowder that any spark could blow (Aime Cesaire). • The white colonists were looking for autonomy. • The the mulattoes were looking for equality • The Slave wanted freedom. • However the first two classes had reactionary concerns but the slaves concerns were revolutionary because they wanted a reverse order in that society.
In august 22nd of 1791 2000 whites died and 280 plantations were destroyed. • On April 4th 1794 the French legistature declared all people free regardless of their color. • Toussaint Louverture successfully helped the french win battles against the spanish. • He became the master of the Island but wanted Saint Domingue to be an autonomous entity. • He wrote a constitution for Saint Domingue in 1801 and he would be governor for life.
Napoleon Bonaparte strongly disapproved the decision • He dispatched 30 000 troops to Saint Domingue with instruction to restore slavery. • Toussaint was tricked and was sent to Jail in Fort de Joux in France. • The french attempted to reestablish slavery. • Jean Jacques Dessalines led the Revolutionary Army • The Battle of Vertieres was the last battle of the Haitian revolution it occurred on November 18th 1803
January 1804 • Only successful slave rebellion in world History. • In 1825 Haiti agreed to make reparations to the French slaveholders 60 millions Francs. • This indemnity mortgaged Haiti’s future.
1804- 1957 • Numerous governments Monarchies and republics kingdoms. • Numerous coup and devasteted economy political instability with periods of prosperity.
American Occupation of 1915 • Goal: secure american business interests in Haiti. Stayed for 19 years. • Representatives from US wielded veto power to all governmental decisions in Haiti. • Inserted their control and belittled Haitians. • 2000 Haitians died in the process and multiple other conflicts.
The Duvaliers • Francois Duvalier and Jean Claude Duvalier. • Dictators Francois proclamed himself president for life • Rule for 14 years until he died. • Youngest president in world History Jean claude Duvalier . • The Duvaliers used both expulsion and political murder to suppress his opponents • Instituted a self paid Militia ( extortion and Crime) • Instituted a campaign to exile communits exile death emprisonment
30000 people died. • Baby Doc • No opposition was tolerated • He was forced to leave in 1986
Aristide AkA Titid • Former Slums Catholic Priest • Won the 1990 presidential election overthrown by the FADH armed forces of Haiti • Went to Exile in Venezuela then US. • Bill Clinton helped him get his groove back in retaliation disbanded the FADH. • Finished his first term. More details about the man Was or still is a Narcotrafficant. Made about Half a billion before he left Haiti. Crime, corruption, seat selling election fraud etc.
` • Social class conflicts • Wrong message.