INDIA – people & culture by Mrs. Sharda Jagdish 7th Grade Geography
What you will learn today. • The population of India • Influences of the past • Religions practiced • Art and Architecture • Languages spoken • Festivals celebrated • Compare the life of a teenager in India with yours
Influences of the Past • 1500 B.C. warriors known as Aryans entered the subcontinent from Central Asia • Brought Hinduism & the caste structure • 700 A.D. Muslims from Southwest Asia brought Islam • In 1500 they founded the Mogul Empire & ruled India for 200 years
Influences of the past (Cont) • British came & ruled India from 1700’s to mid 1900’s. They built roads, railways & ports. • Indian leader- Mohandas Gandhi led a non-violent movement which resulted in India’s independence. Since then, India has been a democracy. • Which civil rights leader in the U.S. was inspired by Gandhi’s non-violent, non-cooperation movement? • Martin Luther King, Jr.
Religions • About 80% of Indians are Hindus. They believe in reincarnation – that the soul is eternal & goes through a cycle of birth & death many times until it reaches perfection on a higher plane of existence. • There are 140 million Muslims in India – making it one of the largest in the world.
Religions (Cont) • Other major religions include: • Sikhism – combines elements of Hindu & Muslim faith & founded by Guru Nanak. • Jainism – practice of strict vegetarianism • Buddhism – was developed by Siddharta, a Hindu prince. It has a greater following outside of India.
The Arts • Religion has influenced the arts of India. • Ancient Hindu temples were built with elaborate, carved towers and intricate stone sculptures of the Hindu gods & goddesses. • Hindu writers have written epics and poems like the Mahabharata & the Ramayana.
The Arts (Cont) • Muslims built some of the finest gardens and the famous mausoleum – the Taj Mahal. • The Taj Mahal was a monument built by a Muslim ruler, Shah Jehan, in the mid 1600’s, in memory of his beloved wife. • Taj Mahal link • Unfortunately, the British have ruined and looted many of India’s treasures.
Life in India Village Life • Rural population is about 74% • Live in brick or mud houses with straw roofs • Mostly work in the farm • Government has tried to provide basic amenities but life is still rather difficult • High rural-urban migration
Life in India City Life • The cities are very crowded. Delhi, Mumbai and Calcutta are densely populated cities. • High-rise apartments & office buildings stand side-by-side with slums. • Bicycles, bullock carts, rickshaws & cars fill the narrow streets lined by small family-owned businesses.
Writing Exercise (Pair work) • You are going to read about Rani and Amit Singh who are teenagers like you living in Mumbai. • With your assigned partner, compare their lives with yours and make a list of the similarities and differences.
Languages spoken • Did you know that a total of more than 1000 languages & dialects are spoken. • Hindi is the official language. Note that an official language is one chosen by a nation for government business.Half the country speak it. • English and 14 other major languages are also spoken. • Why do you think English is a major language here?
Life of Rani & Amit Singh Rani & Amit live with their parents, grandparents and uncles in their high-rise apartment in Mumbai. They go to a nearby school by rickshaw. Wearing their starched gray & white uniform, they take a “tiffin” lunch to school prepared by their mother.After school they would change to some light clothing as it is hot. Amit usually wears an Indian loose shirt and pants & Rani wears a “salwar”(pants) and “kameez”(blouse). When they get a chance, Rani & Amit love going to the movies.Filled with action, romance and songs, movies
Life of Rani & Amit Singh (Cont) are the most popular form of entertainment. India makes more movies than any other country in the world. Amit also enjoys playing cricket and soccer while Rani likes street hockey.Their favorite holiday is Diwali – the Festival of Lights.It is a Hindu festival that celebrates victory of good over evil.
Similarities Differences Comparison between your life with Rani or Amit