China 1911-1934 L/O – To examine how the CCP and Kuomintang developed during the years 1911-1934
The Decline of the Qing Dynasty • In medieval times China had been an advanced civilisation. In the 1800s, however, it was much weaker than the growing empires of western Europe. • European traders moved in to exploit its pottery, silk and gems. There was an emperor of China but he did not really control the country. • By 1900, China was dominated by foreign powers, particularly Japan, Britain and the USA.
The Decline of the Qing Dynasty • In 1911 the last emperor of China, Puyi, who was only 6 years old, was overthrown in a revolution. • China collapsed into chaos as warlords divided the country up into local mini-kingdoms of their own. They recruited armies of local peasants to control their own areas.
The Kuomintang (KMT) The 3 Principles of the Kuomintang 1.) Nationalism: to rid China of foreign influence and exploitation 2.) Democracy: to create a more modern system of government acceptable to the people of China 3.) Social Advance: to bring about reforms in industry and everyday life and particularly to improve the position of Chinese peasants • This was the People’s National Party and was formed to unite China. • It was set up by Sun Yat-senand was based on his 3 principles. • He was determined to rid China of foreign influence and to remove the power of the warlords.
The KMT allies with the Communists • To start with the KMT had little success. Sun Yat-sen was impressed with what the Communists had achieved in Russia. • In 1923 he turned to Russia who supplied arms, money and supplies but in return, he had to ally with the newly formed Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
Sun Yat-sen Dies… • In 1925 Sun Yat-sendied of cancer. Chiang Kai-Shek, who was the leader of the KMT army, became leader. • Chiang K-S was alarmed at the growing power of the CCP. Most KMT officers were landlords or came from the business classes. They were afraid of the Communists.
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) • Formed in 1921 in Shanghai by Mao Zedong & 12 others. • Mao had studied Karl Marx & believed all property should be shared. • The CCP worked hard to help workers form unions. • From 1924-1927 they helped the KMT fight the warlords. The influence of the CCP soon grew.
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) • The influence of Soviet Russia led the CCP to concentrate on peasants and workers. The KMT ignored these groups. • CCP offered land reform to poor peasants. 95% of the Chinese were peasants. 10 million members by 1927.
The Northern Expedition 1926-1928 • Chiang finally removed the warlords with the help of the CCP in 1928. • Peasants & workers welcomed Chiang’s armies & there was little resistance from the warlords. • China was now reunified and Chiang’s government was recognised by foreign powers.
The Shanghai Massacres - 1927 • Chiang feared the growing influence of the CCP, especially in Shanghai. • In 1927 he turned on them & the KMT sent an army to Shanghai. The workers of Shanghai rebelled against the warlord in the area. • When Chiang’s army arrived, it executed all the Communists it could find.
Reorganising the CCP – 1927-1934 The Eight Rules of the Red Army Speak politely Pay fairly for what you buy Return anything you borrow Pay for everything you damage Don’t hit or swear at people Don’t damage crops Don’t take liberties with women Don’t ill-treat prisoners • Many Communist like Mao escaped to the province of Kiangsi where Mao setup the Kiangsi Soviet and Red Army which had 11,000 members by 1930. • Support grew for the CCP as land was redistributed to peasants. • The Red Army trained in Guerrilla Warfare and was told to respect peasants.
The Extermination Campaigns Mao on the tactics of the Red Army, 1930 When the enemy advances, we retreat. When the enemy halts, we harass. When the army retires, we attack. When the enemy retreats, we pursue. • Chiang was determined to crush the Kiangsi Soviet. Between 1930-1934 he launched 5 massive extermination campaigns. • The first 4 were failures due to the guerrilla tactics used by Mao’s forces. However over a million civilians were killed. Mao was criticised.
Homework • Read pages 2-5 of ‘The Impact of Chairman Mao: China, 1946-1976’. • In your books, briefly explain the roles of the following in the events of 1911-1934: • Confuscius, The Qing Dynasty, Yuan Shikai, Warlords, Sun Yat-sen, Chen Duxiu, Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong