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Unit Test: Cells Study Guide Part 2. 1. What are the two main reasons why cells divide instead of continuing to grow?. As a cell grows, it used information in DNA; eventually the cell will use all of the information, so it must divide.

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1 what are the two main reasons why cells divide instead of continuing to grow
1. What are the two main reasons why cells divide instead of continuing to grow?
  • As a cell grows, it used information in DNA; eventually the cell will use all of the information, so it must divide.
  • As a cell grows, it must take in more nutrients and expel more waste, but its surface area shrinks as it grows, so it must divide.
2 explain why how a cell struggles to exchange materials as it grows
2. Explain why/how a cell struggles to exchange materials as it grows.
  • As a cell grows, its surface area to volume ratio decreases.
  • This means that the demands of the increasing volume outweigh the ability of the surface area to send waste out and absorb nutrients.
3 what is cell division
3. What is cell division?
  • Cell division is the process by which one cell divides into two new daughter cells
4 describe each form of cell division and include a detailed diagram
4. Describe each form of cell division, and include a detailed diagram.
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Two parent cells produce one offspring who shares half of the genetic information from each parent.
  • Asexual reproduction
  • One parent cell divides into two new daughter cells whose genetic material is identical
slide6

5. Draw a chromosome and label and explain each of the three parts.

centromere

Where chromatids are joined together – in the center

chromatids

duplicated chromosomes

DNA and Histone Proteins

Histone proteins wrap around DNA and form a “super coil”

slide7

The chromosome’s structure is unique. In a complete sentence, describe the structure of a chromosome in your own words. Include the following terms in your description: (1)DNA (2)histone proteins (3)super coil – use twice (4)wrapped around (5)chromatids (6) centromere

  • In chromosomes, DNA is wrapped around histone proteins which forms a supercoil. The supercoil forms chromatids which meet in the middle at the centromere.
7 1 what are genes 2 where are genes located 3 what structure carries our genes
7. (1) What are genes? (2) Where are genes located? (3) What structure carries our genes?
  • Genes are the part of DNA that code our individual traits
  • Genes are located inside of our DNA
  • Chromosomes carry our genes
8 fill in the blanks
8. Fill in the blanks

processes

  • The ____________________ of cell division are different, but when the ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­______________’s role is fulfilled, new cells always have ____________________ that are copied from the _____________ _____________.

chromosome

genes

parent

cell

9 what is the chromosome s role in cell division
9. What is the chromosome’s role in cell division?
  • Chromosomes carry genetic information to new cells and to the next generation of offspring.
slide11

10. Draw a complete illustration of the 4 phases of mitosis and cytokinesis. Include the following in your diagram: (1) chromosomes (2) nuclear envelope (3) spindle fibers (4) centromere (5) nucleusList the events that occur during each phase.

1 prophase
1. PROPHASE

Spindle

Centrioles

  • Chromosomes coil more tightly and become visible
  • The spindle forms from centrioles outside of the nucleus
  • Nuclear envelope disappears.
2 metaphase
2. Metaphase
  • Centromeres line up across the center of the cell
  • Spindle fibers connect the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle
3 anaphase
3. Anaphase
  • Chromatids separate and move apart to opposite sides of the cell

Centrioles

Chromatids

4 telophase
4. Telophase

Spindle and centriole

  • Chromosomes spread out
  • Nuclear envelope reforms
  • Spindle breaks apart
  • At the end of telophase , we have two nuclei with duplicate set of chromosomes

Two nuclei

cytokinesis
Cytokinesis

Spindle and centriole

  • Cell membrane moves inwards and pinches the cytoplasm to separate the new daughter cells.

Nuclei

Chromosomes