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Chapter 17. Urinary System. Medical Terminology to Know. Calyc - small cup, cuplike divisions of the renal pelvis. Cort - covering, renal cortex; shell of tissues surrounding the inner kidney Detrus - to force away detrusor muscle; muscle within the bladder wall that expels urine.

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chapter 17

Chapter 17

Urinary System

medical terminology to know
Medical Terminology to Know

Calyc- small cup, cuplike divisions of the renal pelvis.

Cort- covering, renal cortex; shell of tissues surrounding the inner kidney

Detrus- to force away detrusor muscle; muscle within the bladder wall that expels urine.

Glom- little ball, glomerulus; cluster of capillaries within a renal corpuscle.

slide3

Mict- to pass urine, micturition; process of expelling urine from the bladder.

Nephr- pertaining to the kidney, nephron; functional unit of a kidney.

Papill- nipple, renal papillae; small elevations that project into a renal calyx.

Trigon- triangular shape, trigone; triangular area on the internal floor of the urinary bladder.

17 1 introduction
17.1 Introduction
  • Removes certain salts and nitrogenous wastes.
  • Maintains the normal concentrations of water and electrolytes within body fluids.
  • Regulates pH and volume of body fluids, helps control red blood cell production and blood pressure.

Kidneys

Ureters

Bladder

Urethra

17 2 kidneys
17.2 Kidneys
  • 12 centimeters long
  • 6 centimeters wide
  • 3 centimeters thick
location of the kidneys
Location of the Kidneys
  • Either side of the vertebral column in a depression high on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity.
  • Left kidney is usually 1.5-2cm higher than the right one.
  • Positioned retroperitoneally: means they are behind the parietal peritoneum and against the deep muscles of the back.
kidney structure
Kidney Structure
  • Lateral surface is convex, medial side is deeply concave.
  • Renalsinus: hollow chamber, entrance is called the bilum, through it pass blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the ureter.
  • Renal pelvis: funnel-shaped sac inside the renal sinus.
    • Three tubes: major calyces ---minor calyces
kidney structure cont
Kidney Structure cont…
  • Renal papillae: series of small elevations project into the renal sinus from its wall.
  • Two distinct regions of the kidney:
    • Innermedulla and an outer cortex.
    • Renalmedulla: composed of conical masses of tissue called renal pyramids and appears striated.
    • Renalcortex: forms a shell around the medulla and dips into the medulla between renal pyramids, forming renal columns.
kidney structure cont1
Kidney Structure cont…
  • Random organization of tiny tubules associated with the nephrons make the cortex look granular.
  • Nephrons: kidney’s functional units.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQZaNXNroVY
check your recall
Check Your Recall
  • Where are the kidneys located?
  • Describe kidney structure.
  • Name the kidney’s functional unit.
kidney functions
Kidney Functions
  • Maintain homeostasis by regulating the composition, volume, and the pH of the extracellular fluid.
  • Removes metabolic wastes from the blood and diluting them with water and electrolytes to form urine.
  • secreting the hormone erythropoietin to help control the rate of red blood cell production.
  • Playing a role in the activation of vitamin D
  • Helping to maintain blood volume and blood pressure by secreting the enzyme renin.
renal blood vessels
Renal Blood Vessels
  • Renalarteries: arise from the abdominal aorta, supply blood to the kidneys. (large amt.)
  • When a person is at rest, the renal arteries usually carry 15-30% of the total cardiac output to the kidneys.
  • Enters through the hilum, splits into several branches, called interlobararteries, which pass between the renal pyramids.
renal blood vessels1
Renal Blood Vessels
  • At the junction between the medulla and cortex the interlobar arteries branch, forming a series of incomplete arches, the arcuatearteries, then give rise to interlobulararteries.
  • The final branches of the interlobulararteries, are called afferentarterioles, which lead to the nephrons.
renal blood vessels2
Renal Blood Vessels
  • Venous blood returns through a series of vessels that combine to form the renalvein that leaves the kidney and joins the inferior vena cava.
kidney transplant
Kidney Transplant
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pF0YGYV86kA
nephrons
Nephrons
  • A kidney contains about 1 million nephrons.
  • Consists of:
    • Renal corpuscle
      • Glomerulus
      • Glomerular capsule
    • Renal tubule
renal tubule
Renal tubule
  • Fluid flows through renal tubules on its way out of the body.
glomerulus
Glomerulus
  • Tangled cluster of blood capillaries.
  • Filter fluid, first step in urine formation.

GlomerularCapsule

  • sac-like structure that surrounds the glomerulus.
  • Receives the fluid the glomerulus filters.
  • The renal tubule leads away from the glomerular capsule and becomes highly coiled, called the proximalconvolutedtubule.
slide20

The proximal convoluted tubule dips toward the renal pelvis, becoming the descending limb of the nephron loop (theLoopofHenle).

  • The tubule then curves back toward its renal corpuscle and forms the ascending limb of the nephron loop. Returns to the region of the renal corpuscle, where it becomes highly coiled again and is called the distal convoluted tubule.
slide22

Many distal convoluted tubules from several nephrons merge in the renal cortex to form a collecting duct.

  • Passes into the renal medulla and enlarges as other distal convoluted tubules join it.
  • The tube empties into a minor calyx through an opening in a renal papilla.
check your recall1
Check Your Recall
  • List the general functions of the kidneys.
  • Trace the blood supply to the kidneys.
  • Name the parts of a nephron.
blood supply of a nephron
Blood Supply of a Nephron
  • Capillaries that form a glomerulus comes from an afferent arteriole.
  • After the blood passes through the glomerular capillaries, blood (minus any filtered fluid) enters an efferent arteriole.
  • (instead of entering a venule,) the efferent arteriole resists blood flow and backs up blood into the glomerulus, increasing pressure in the glomerular capillary.
slide25

The efferent arteriole branches into a complex, freely interconnecting network of capillaries, called the peritubularcapillary, surrounds the renal tubule.

  • Blood here is under low pressure.
  • After this the blood rejoins blood from other branches of the peritubular capillary system and enters the venous system.
juxtaglomerular apparatus
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
  • Near its origin, the distal convoluted tubule passes between and contacts afferent and efferent arterioles.
  • At the point of contact, the epithelial cells of the distal tubule are quite narrow and densely packed.
  • Cells make up a structure called the maculadensa.
slide28

Close by, the walls of the arterioles near their attachemnts to the glomerulus, are some enlarged smooth muscle cells called juxtaglomerularcells.

  • Juxtaglomerularapparatus: macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells.
  • Its junction is the control of renin secretion.
17 3 urine formation
17.3 Urine Formation
  • Glomerular filtration: 1st step in urine formation.
  • Capillary beds:
    • 1st : filters, filtrate moves into the renal tubule.
    • Glomerular filtration produces 180 liters of fluid every 24 hours.
    • Most fluid moves back into the blood stream.
tubular reabsorption
Tubular Reabsorption
  • Moves substances from the tubular fluid back into the blood within the peritubular capillary.

Tubular Secretion:

  • reverse process, moves substances from the blood into the renal tubule
  • Kidneys reclaim the right amount of electrolytes, water, and glucose that the body requires.
urine is formed
Urine is Formed

Amount filtered at the glomerulus

- Amount reabsorbed by the tubule

+ Amount secreted by the tubule

_____________________________

= Amount excreted in the urine

glomerular filtration
Glomerular Filtration
  • Glomerular capillary walls have tiny openings (fenestrae).
  • These are much more permeable than capillaries in other tissues.
  • Podocytes cover these capillaries: make them impermeable to plasma proteins.
  • Glomerularfiltrate: is received in the capsule. (mostly water and components that are in blood plasma)
filtration pressure
Filtration Pressure
  • Hydrostaticpressure of blood forces substances through the glomerular capillary wall.
  • Osmoticpressure of plasma in the glomerulus and the hydrostatic pressure inside the glomerular capsule also influence this movement.
  • Netfiltrationpressure: net pressure that favors filtration at the glomerulus.
filtration rate
Filtration Rate
  • Glomerular filtration is directly proportional to the net filtration pressure.
  • If efferent arteriole constricts, blood backs up in the glomerulus and net filtration pressure increases, which raises filtration rate.
glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis
  • Glomerular capillaries are inflamed.
  • More permeable to proteins, which appear in the glomerular filtrate and in urine (proteinuria).
  • Protein concentration in blood plasma decreases (hyporoteinemia).
  • This decreases plasma colloid osmotic pressure.
  • Less tissue fluid moves into the capillaries, and edema develops. (accumulation of fluid under skin)
regulation of filtration rate
Regulation of Filtration Rate
  • May increase when body fluids are in excess and decrease when the body must conserve fluid.
  • If blood pressure drops afferent arterioles vasoconstric, decreasing the glomerular filtration rate.
  • Ensure less urine formation when the body needs to conserve water.
renin
Renin
  • Juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin in response to three types of stimuli:
  • Whenever special cells in the afferent arteriole sense a drop in blood pressure.
  • Sympathetic stimulation
  • Macula densa senses decreased amounts of chloride, potassium, and sodium ions reaching the distal tubule.
slide39

Renin reacts with the plasma protein angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I.

Then angiotensin I converts to angiotensin II.

Angiotensin II carries out a number of actions that help maintain sodium balance, water balance, and blood pressure.

A II vasoconstricts the efferent arterioles, which causes blood to back up into the glomerulus; maximize secretion when low blood pressure.

slide40

Angiotensin II stimulates secretion of adrenal hormone aldosterone, which stimulates tubular reabsorption of sodium.

  • (controlling sodium in bloodstream)
review questions
Review questions
  • What carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder? Ureters
  • Describe the location of the kidneys in one word. Retroperitoneally.
  • What is the hormone called that helps to control the rate of RBC? Erythropoietin
  • Muscle that helps to expel urine after the bladder? urethra
slide42

Renal pyramids compose what structure of the kidneys? Renal medulla

  • What are the arterioles that enter the glomerulus? Afferent arterioles
  • What blood vessel leaves the kidney to form with the inferior vena cava? Renal vein
  • A tangled cluster of blood capillaries in the nephron? glomerulus
slide43

Another name for the renal corpuscle? Bowman’s capsule

  • Tubule that is directly after the bowman’s capsule? Proximal convoluted tubule
  • Tubule that loops down? Loop of henle
  • Arterioles that leave the glomerulus? Efferent arteriole
  • Capillaries that surround the distal convoluted tubules? Peritubular capillaries
slide44

Where renin is produced. Juxtaglomerular apparatus

  • Substance from the tubular fluid moves back into the blood. Tubular reabsorption
  • Substances that collect in the bowman’s capsule? Glomerular filtrate
  • Glomerular capillaries are inflamed? glomerulonephritis
slide45

Anuria

  • Nephroectomy
  • Incontinence
  • Polyuria
  • Diuretic
  • Dysuria
tubular secretion
Tubular Secretion
  • Substances move from the plasma of blood in the peritubular capillary into the fluid of the renal tubule.
  • Tubular: control by the epithelial cells that make up the renal tubules.
  • Active transport
  • Secretory mechanisms: transport substances in the opposite direciton.
  • Proximal convoluted segment: secretes certain organic compounds, including penicillin, creatinine, and histamine, into the tubular fluid.
slide47

Hydrogen ions are also actively secreted throughout the entire renal tubule.

  • Secretion of hydrogen ions is important in regulating the pH of body fluids.
  • K ions reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.
  • Active reabsorption of sodium ions from the tubular fluid produces a negative electrical charge within the tubule.
slide48

Because positively charged potassium ions and hydrogen ions are attracted to negatively charged regions, these ions move passively through the tubular epithelium and enter the tubular fluid.

urine forms by
Urine Forms By:
  • Glomerular filtration of materials from blood plasma
  • Reabsorption of substances, including glucose; water; creatine; amino acids; lactic, citric, and uric acids; and phosphate, sulfate, calcium, potassium, and sodium ions.
  • Secretion of substances, including penicillin, histamine, phenobarbital, hydrogen ions, ammonia, and potassium ions.
check your recall2
Check your recall:
  • Define tubular secretion.
  • Which substances are actively secreted?
  • How does sodium reabsorption affect potassium secretion?
regulation of urine concentration and volume
Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume
  • ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
  • Aldosterone
    • May stimulate additional reabsorption of sodium and water.
    • Final adjustments the

kidney makes to maintain

a constant internal

environment.

adrenal gland
Adrenal gland
  • Secretes aldosterone in response to changes in the blood concentrations of sodium and potassium ions.
  • Aldosterone stimulates the

distal tubule to reabsorb

sodium and secrete potassium.

  • Angiotensin II also

stimulates aldosterone

secretion.

slide53

Neurons in the hypothalamus produce ADH.

  • Posterior pituitary releases in response to a decreasing water concentration in blood or a decrease in blood volume.
  • When ADH reaches the kidney it increases the water permeability of the epithelial linings of the distal convoluted tubule. –water is reabsorbed.
slide54

Urine volumes fall.

  • Soluble wastes and other substances become more concentrated.
  • Minimizes loss of body fluids when dehydration is likely.
  • If body fluids contain excess water, ADH secretion decreases.
slide55

Then the distal segment and collecting duct become less permeable to water, less water is reabsorbed, and urine is more dilute. (when ADH decreases in the blood)

urea and uric acid excretion
Urea and Uric Acid Excretion
  • Urea: by-product of amino acid catabolism.
  • Concentration in plasma reflects the amt. of protein in diet.
  • 50% of it is reabsorbed, remainder is excreted in urine.
  • Uric acid: product of the metabolism of certain organic bases in nucleic acids.
  • Active transport reabsorbs all the uric acid normally present in glomerular filtrate, small amt. is excreted in urine.
check your recall3
Check your recall
  • How does the hypothalamus regulate urine concentration and volume?
  • Explain how urea and uric acid are excreted.
slide58
Gout
  • Elevated concentration of uric acid in plasma.
  • Insoluble
  • Precipitates when in excess
  • Crystals of uric acid are deposited in joints and other tissues.
  • Causes inflammation and extreme pain.
  • Joints of the great toes are most often affected.
  • Drugs that inhibit uric acid reabsorption is taken.
urine composition
Urine Composition
  • Reflects the amounts of water and solutes that the kidneys must eliminate from the body or retain.
  • Urine:
    • 95% water
    • Urea
    • Uric acid
    • Amino acids
    • electrolytes
volume
Volume
  • 0.6 – 2.5 liters per day
  • Depends on:
    • Fluid intake
    • Environmental temp.
    • Humidity
    • Person’s emotional condition
    • Respiratory rate
    • Body temperature
check your recall4
Check your recall
  • List the normal constituents of urine.
  • What factors affect urine volume?
17 4 urine elimination
17.4 Urine Elimination
  • Collectingducts – openings in renal papillae – enters the calyces of the kidney --- renal pelvis --- ureter --- urinary bladder --- urethra excretes urine
ureters
Ureters
  • Tube 25 cm.
  • Behind the parietal peritoneum
  • Parallel to the vertebral column
  • Valve allowing urine to enter bladder and not go back up ureter.
  • Wall:
    • Mucous coat
    • Muscular coat
    • Fibrous coat
check your recall5
Check Your Recall
  • Describe the structure of a ureter.
  • How is urine moved from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder?
  • What prevents urine from backing up from the urinary bladder into the ureters?
urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
  • Hollow
  • Distensible
  • Muscular organ
  • Behind the symphysis pubis
  • Beneath the parietal peritoneum
  • More folded when empty.
slide66

Internal floor of the bladder includes a triangular area called the trigone: opening at each of its three angles.

  • Openings are those of the ureters
  • Apex of the trigone is a short, funnel-shaped extension, called the neck; contains the opening into the urethra.
wall of bladder
Wall of bladder
  • Mucous coat: Epithelial cells
  • Submucous coat: connective tissue
  • Muscular coat: course bundles of smooth muscle fibers.
    • Detrusormuscle
      • Portion that surrounds the neck forms an internal urethral sphincter: prevents bladder from emptying until pressure within the bladder increases to a certain level.
  • Serous Coat: parietal peritoneum. Only on upper surface.
check your recall6
Check Your Recall
  • Describe the trigone of the urinary bladder.
  • Describe the structure of the bladder wall.
micturition
Micturition
  • Urination
  • Detrusor muscle contracts
  • Other muscles in the abdominal wall and pelvic also contract.
  • Muscles in the thoracic wall and diaphragm do not contract.
  • Relaxation of the external urethral sphincter.
  • Micturition reflex: triggerd by ditension of the bladder wall
slide70

Bladder holds 600mL before stimulating pain receptors.

  • Urge to urinate usually begins when it contains about 150 mL.
urethra
Urethra
  • Tube that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to the outside.
  • Wall lined with mucous membrane
  • Smooth muscle tissue
  • Urethral glands: mucous glands; secrete mucus into the urethral canal.
check your recall7
Check your recall
  • Describe micturition.
  • Describe the structure of the urethra.
homework
Homework

Pg. 472-473

Review Exercises

1 – 7

12, 13, 16, 26