Chapter 17 The Creation and Diffusion of Consumer Culture
The set of individuals and organizations responsible for creating and marketing a cultural product is a Cultural Production System (CPS). It consists of: Creative Subsystem - responsible for generating new symbols and/or products. Managerial Subsystem - responsible for selecting, making tangible, mass producing, and managing the distribution of new symbols and/or products. Communications Subsystem - responsible for giving meaning to the new product and communicating these symbolic attributes to the consumer. Cultural Production Systems
Culture Production Systems create many diverse kinds of products, such as Arts and Crafts: An Art Product is viewed primarily as an object of aesthetic contemplation without any functional value. A Craft Product is admired because of the beauty with which it performs some function. Mass culture churns out products specifically for a mass market and many follow a Cultural Formula where certain roles and props occur consistently such as in detective or romance novels. High Culture and PopularCulture
Reality Engineering is Accelerating due to the Popularity of Product Placement. Reality Engineering Reality Engineering Occurs as Elements of Popular Culture are Appropriated by Marketers and Converted to Vehicles for Promotional Strategies. Product Placement is the Insertion of Specific Products/ Brand Names in Movies & TV. Media Images Appear to Significantly Influence Consumers’ Perceptions of Reality.
Diffusion of Innovations Diffusion of Innovations Refers to the Process Whereby a New Product, Service, or Idea Spreads Through a Population. Early Majority Late Majority Percentage of Adopters Early Adopters Innovators Laggards 34% 34% 16% 13.5% 2.5% Time of Adoption Early Late
Innovators - 2.5% of the population, the first to buy, will buy novel products. Early Adopters - 13.5 % of the population, share many characteristics with the Innovators, but they have a higher degree or concern for social acceptance. Early and Late Majority - 68% of the population, mainstream public, interested in new things, but not too new. Laggards - 16% of the population, the last to adopt a product. Adopter Categories
Types of Innovations Technological Innovation Involves Some Functional Change Symbolic Innovation Communicates a New Social Meaning
Behavioral Demands of Innovations Dynamically Continuous Innovation More Pronounced Change in the Existing Product Discontinuous Innovation Creates Major Changes in the Way We Live Continuous Innovation Modification of an Existing Product Degree to Which an Innovation Demands Changes in Behavior
Prerequisites for Successful Adoption Relative Advantage Must Give Advantages Other Products Don’t Have Compatibility Must Fit Consumer’s Lifestyle Product Characteristics for Successful Adoption Trialability Reduce Risk by Letting Consumer Try it Observability Ones That are Observable Spread Faster Complexity Lower The Better
The Fashion System Fashion is the Process of Social Diffusion by Which a New Style is Adopted by Some Group(s) of Consumers. Collective Selection Process by Which Certain Symbolic Alternatives are Chosen Over Others Group Products by Categories Cultural Categories Affect Many Different Products and Styles Costumes Worn by Celebrities Can Affect Fashion
Behavioral Science Perspectiveon Fashion Psychological Economic Models of Fashion Sociological Medical
Psychological Models of Fashion Erogenous Zones Behavioral Science Perspectiveon Fashion
Fashions Have Accentuated Different Parts of the Female Anatomy Throughout History
Do you believe there is a “designer conspiracy” because they are the ones who determine what is “in” and what is “out” in fashion? Are We at the Mercy of Fashion Designers?
Parody Display Prestige-Exclusivity Effect Snob Effect Economic Model of Fashion
Trickle-Down Theory Mass Fashion Trickle-Across Theory Trickle-Up Sociological Models of Fashion
Meme Theory Tipping Point Medical Model of Fashion
Fashion Life-Cycle Acceleration General Acceptance A Normal Fashion Cycle Decline Rise Obsolescence Innovation Introduction stages Acceptance stages Regression stages
Introduction Stages Product is used by a small number of Innovators. Acceptance Stages Product enjoys increased social visibility and acceptance by large segments of the population. A Classic is a fashion with an extremely long acceptance cycle. A Fad is a short-lived fashion. Regression Stages Product reaches a state of social saturation as it becomes overused, and sinks into decline and obsolesce as new products rise to take its place. Cycles of Fashion Adoption
Does it Fit With Basic Lifestyle Changes? What are the Benefits? Can it be Personalized? Is it a Trend or a Side Effect? What Other Changes Have Occurred in the Market? Who Has Adopted the Change? Fad or Trend? Questions to Ask to Determine if a Trend, Which Lasts for Some Time, is Occurring Include:
Think Globally, Act Locally • Two Views Exist Regarding the Necessity of Developing Separate Marketing Plans for Each Culture. Etic Perspective Adopting a Standardized Strategy Which Focuses on Commonalties Across Cultures. • Emic Perspective • Adopting a Localized Strategy Which Focuses on Variations Within a Culture.
Cultural differences relevant to marketers. Tastes and styles, Advertising preferences and regulations, Cultural norms toward taboos and sexuality. To maximize the chances of success for multicultural advertising campaigns, marketers should target those who share a common worldview, who may include: Affluent people who are “global citizens”, and Young people who are influenced by the media. Determining Whether to Utilize the Etic or Emic Perspective
Creolization Occurs When Foreign Influences are Absorbed and Integrated With Local Meanings The West is a Net Exporter of Popular Culture The U.S. Invades Asia Emerging Consumer Cultures in Transitional Economies Signs That the Western Culture Invasion is Slowing The Diffusion of Western Consumer Culture