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Computed Tomography. Contrast-enhanced helical CT of the thorax and abdomen that includes the liver and adrenal glands is the standard radiologic investigation for staging lung cancers. Detects mediastinal nodal metastases , chest wall and mediastinal invasion .

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computed tomography
Computed Tomography
  • Contrast-enhanced helical CT of the thorax and abdomen that includes the liver and adrenal glands is the standard radiologic investigation for staging lung cancers.
  • Detects mediastinal nodal metastases , chest wall and mediastinal invasion.
  • Specific features in lung nodules may be diagnostic, e.g.calcifications, fat, enhancement pattern.
adenocarcinoma
Adenocarcinoma
  • Represents 35-40% of all lung cancers .
  • usually occurs in a peripheral location within the lung and measure <4 cm in diameter.
  • Only 4% show cavitation
  • Hilar or hilar and mediastinal involvement is seen in 51% of cases on chest radiography
bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma
Bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma
  • Is a subtype of adenocarcinoma .
  • Accounts for 5% of bronchogenic CA.
  • Increased incidence in patients with interstitial lung disease, parenchymal scaring, and exogenous lipoid pneumonia.
  • May manifest as a solitary nodule, multifocal disease, or a rapidly progressing pneumonia.
  • Voluminous watery sputum is characteristic.
squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Accounts for 25-30% of all lung cancers.
  • Strong association with cigarette smoking.
  • Often centrally located within the lung .
  • Cavitation is seen in up to 82%.
  • Commonly causes lung collapse due to their central location.