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Weakness of the Multi-Store Model. STM and LTM aren ’ t unitary stores. The assumption is that LTM and STM operate as single ‘ boxes ’ but...

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stm and ltm aren t unitary stores
STM and LTM aren’t unitary stores
  • The assumption is that LTM and STM operate as single ‘boxes’ but...
    • STM: case study of KF (Shallice and Warrington, 1970). Suffered brain damage  normal visual information processing, but couldn’t deal properly with verbal information
    • LTM: evidence from amnesia patients  Schachter et al. (2000) divided LTM into
      • Semantic memory (words and the world!)
      • Episodic memory (what did you do last night...)
      • Procedural memory
      • Perceptual-representation system (PRS!!)  memory related to priming / recognising stimuli which have been seen before
    • LTM: Spiers et al. (2001) – 147 amnesia patients
      • ALL had working procedural and PRS systems
      • BUT semantic and episodic systems showed problems
rehearsal versus processing
Rehearsal versus Processing
  • It’s not only rehearsal that gets things into your LTM!
  • Craik and Lockhart (1972) Levels of Processing
    • LTM created by the processing you do
    • If you process something at a deeper level, it becomes more memorable
  • Craik and Tulving (1975)
    • List of nouns PLUS a question about each word
    • We’ll do this now so you can see what happens
rehearsal versus processing1
Rehearsal versus Processing
  • Three kinds of question
    • Shallow processing (capital letters)
    • Phonemic (does it rhyme)
    • Semantic processing (deep processing for meaning, is it a type of fruit)
  • Condition 3 showed more recall than condition 1
  • This has led to an alteration of the MSM
    • Maintenance rehearsal has become ‘elaborative’ rehearsal (deeper/more semantic rehearsal)
    • Glenberg et al. (1977) showed that maintenance rehearsal did have an impact on LTM creation, but not as much as elaborative rehearsal
are stm and ltm separate
Are STM and LTM separate?
  • Logie (1999)
    • STM relies on LTM
    • For example, try to remember these letters:
      • To remember this you’d have to do what?
  • Summarise the Ruchkin et al. (2003) study for yourself – what they did, what they found and what conclusions they drew
  • Where this leads to...the Working Memory Model