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Chapter 3 Morphology: The Analysis Of Word Structure. How to segment this word? Anti/ dis/ establish/ ment/ ari/ an/ ism. “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet.” (Shakespeare). 2. Free morphemes:

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Chapter 3

Morphology:

The Analysis

Of Word Structure

slide3

How to segment this word?

Anti/ dis/ establish/ ment/ ari/ an/ ism

slide6

“What’s in a name?

  • That which we call a rose
  • By any other name would smell as sweet.”
  • (Shakespeare)
slide16

2. Free morphemes:

Morphemes that can constitute words

by themselves are called free morphemes,

such as“man”,“sick”.

slide17

Bound morpheme categories:

a.Prefixes:morphemes that occur only

before other morphemes,

such as, dis-in “dishonest”,

bi-in“bicycle”

slide18

c. Infixes: morphemes that are inserted

into other morphemes, such as,

-um-inserted into “fikas”, which

becomes“fumikas”in the

language, Bontoc

slide22

N

A

V

Af

Af

A

teach

er

un

kind

slide23

V

V

A

Af

Af

black

en

ed

slide24

A

N

Af

B

B

Af

in

ept

salv

ation

slide25

Inter-relation of morpheme natures and types:

Free

Bound

house, boy, teacher, sentence, type, cut, clear, at, yesterday, patiently, cold……….

(per)ceive, (ad)mit, huckle(berry), (in)ept, …(and less than a hundread more)

Root

(girl)s, (cook)ed, (hunt)ing, (teach)er, un(happy), dis(agree), (arriv)al, (cav)ity, (danger)ous, re(do), (scholar)ship,………..

none

Affix

slide32

N

V

A

V

Af

Af

Af

act

ive

ate

ion

slide33

A

A

A

V

Af

V

Af

Af

V

Af

un

lock

able

un

lock

able

slide36

N

V

V

V

A

V

A

A

A

N

N

N

Adv

slide42

NOTE:

When someone uses such words as coolth (like warmth), fullen (like weaken), usually it is either an error or an attempt at humor.

Our knowledge of the related pairs, may permit us to use these examples in forming new words, by analogy with the existing lexical items.

slide43

Play on words/morphemes to create humor: (comic strips)

…This is very strange.

…If a vegetarian is someone who eats

vegetables.

…What does that make a humanitarian?

slide44

3. Meaning is not always transcendental:

a. predictable

ex. girlfriend; post office

b. partially predictable

ex. blackboard;

c. completely unpredictable

ex. cathouse; jack-in-a-box; redcoat

slide49

Exocentric compound: A compound

whose meaning does not follow from

the meaning of its parts ( e.g. redneck,

since its referent is not a type of neck)

slide51

C. Blends: words that are “less than”

compounds; mixture of parts

of words.

Portmanteau: two meanings packed up into one word or one morpheme.

crocogator: crocodile + alligator

girls’ high school

slide54

Other examples: dorm (dormitory)

vet (veterinarian)

pro (professional)

slide65

1. morpheme of “house” is

kali

2. morpheme of “cornfields” is

kwahmilimes

3. morpheme of “his dog” is

ipelomes

4. morpheme of “dog” is

pelo

5. If friend is mahkwa, then “my friends” should be

nomahkwames