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  1. Morphology: It's Relation with Phonology, Syntax and Semantics. Sobha L AU-KBC Research Centre MIT Campus of Anna University Chennai-44

  2. Word- Its Internal Structure • What is a Word? All right and Alright The splody cat sat on a mat What is a Lexeme? An abstract vocabulary item is Lexeme He went to the pub for a pint and then pockled off Pockled, Pockling, Pockling and Pockle are different realisations of the lexeme POCKLE

  3. Word –Form Word is not just the abstract vocabulary item with a common core of meaning, the lexeme. It has a particular physical realisation of that lexeme in speech and writing and this is word-form

  4. Grammatical Word • The word can also be seen as a representative of a lexeme that is associated with certain morpho-syntactic properties such as noun, adjective, verb , gender, number etc. • Here we call a word as a grammatical word.

  5. 3. a Usually I cut the bread on the table • b. Yesterday I cut the bread in the sink • In 3a. Cut is [verb, present, non 3rd person] • Realises the present CUT • In 3b. Cut is cut [verb, past] • Realises the past CUT • 3c.John has a cut in his finger • Here Cut is [Noun, singular]

  6. Hence here cut is a separate Lexeme • CUT [Noun] from CUT [Verb] because they belong to different word-class • The nature of grammatical word is important in identifying the relationship between words and sentences and the boundary between morphology and syntax

  7. Morphology • Morphology is the study of morphemes and their arrangements in forming words. • the, free, desk, eat--cannot be divided further • Mosquito- cannot be divided into mos and quito • Boys, girls –can be divided into boy, girl and -s

  8. Morphemes, Allomorphs • Morphemes are the smallest linguistic elements capable of having a meaning or grammatical function. • They have no internal structure other than phonological structure. Naturally, the boundaries between words are also boundaries between morphemes.

  9. Morphemes are minimal meaningful units which may constitute words or parts of words. e.g. re-, de-, un-, -ish, -ly, -ceive, -mand, tie, boy, and like in the combinations receive, demand, untie, boyish, likely.

  10. Examples of the division of words into morphemes. His over-estim-at-ion of his friend-s' dis-pleas-ure at his effort-s led to a severe nerv-ous break-down which was only cure-d by an electr-ic shock therap-ist. • It is difficult to determine the boundaries between morphemes.

  11. The element cran-, which only occurs in cranberry. • A second example is the element -sume in the words. • consume, presume, subsume, resume, assume • In response to certain other morphemes, sume systematically changes its form. • consumption, presumption, subsumption, resumption, assumption; consumptive, presumptuous • Notice that the alternation between sume and sump is not predictable from the phonological laws of English

  12. Thus, it is true that morphemes are the smallest elements capable of having a meaning or grammatical function • Not all morphemes have a meaning or function.

  13. e.g. in- and im- of intolerable and impossible are allomorphs of the negative morpheme {im}. /kam-, kan–,kan*-/ of comparable, context, congregate are allomorphs of a single morpheme. As their distribution can be stated by phonological condition, they are called phonologically conditioned allomorph. {kam-~ kan- ~kan*-} MORPH AND ALLOMORPH

  14. Principle 1 If a form ( containing one phoneme or a number of phonemes ) conveys the same meaning in all its occurrences, then it is treated as a morpheme. e.g. -er of worker, dancer, and filler is a morpheme -er of wider, broader, smaller, deeper, cleaner is a different morpheme.

  15. Problem 1 • nic^oka ‘I cry’ • nic^oka? ‘I cried’ • nimayana ‘I am hungry’ • nimayana? ‘I was hungry’ • nimayanaya ‘I was hungry (and may still be)’ • timayana ‘you (sg.) are hungry’ • nimayanas ‘I will be hungry’ • tic^oka ‘you (sg.) cry’ • nic^okaya ‘I was crying (and may still be)’ • nic^okas ‘I will cry’

  16. Problem 1 (cont.) 11. an’kwake ‘you (pl.) ate’ 12. nitehkawi ‘I climb’ 13. titehkawi? ‘you (sg.) climbed’ 14. nitehkawiya ‘I was climbing (and may still be)’ 15. nitehkawis ‘I will climb’ 16. nikwake ‘we ate’

  17. Problem 1 (cont.) 17. nimayanati ‘I go to be hungry’ 18. nimayanato ‘ I went to be hungry’ 19. nimayanaki ‘ I come to be hungry’ 20. nimayanako ‘I came to be hungry’ 21. nikmayanati ‘I cause him to be hungry’ 22. nikmayanati/ ‘I caused him to be hungry’ 23. nimicmayanatis ‘I shall cause you (sg.) to be hungry’

  18. AC:BC::AD:BD walk-ed:talk-ed::walk-ing:talk-ing nic^oka : tic^coka :: nimayana : timayana A C B C A D B D c^oka? : mayana? :: c^okas : mayanas The morphemes of the problem 1 can be listed as follows: 1. ni- ‘I’ 4. mayana ‘to be hungry’ 2. ti- ‘you (sg.)’ 5. ? - past 3. –c^oka ‘ to cry’ 6. s - future 7. ya – past incomplete

  19. Problem 2 paTittaan ‘he read’ iTittan ‘he pounded’ kaattaan ‘he protected’ paTittaaL ‘she read’ iTittaaL ‘she pounded’ kaattaaL ‘she protected’ paTikkiRaan ‘he is reading’ iTikkiRaan ‘he is pounding’ kaakkiRaan ‘he is protecting’ paTikkiRaaL ‘she is reading’ iTikkiRaaL ‘she is pounding’ kaakkiRaaL ‘she is protecting’

  20. Principle 2 Forms which have a common semantic distinctiveness but which differ in phonemic form (i.e. the phonemes or order of the phonemes) may constitute a morpheme provided the distribution of formal differences is phonologically definable. e.g. in- and im- of intolerable, impossible, impracticable & impersonal bear a partial phonetic-semantic resemblance and the position in which they occur are determined by the type of consonant following.

  21. maram ‘tree’ marattaTi ‘wood of a tree’ marakkiLai ‘branch of a tree’ maraŋkaL ‘trees’ {maram} / maram ~ maraŋ ~ mara/

  22. Problem 1. hk’ab ‘my hand’ 1a. k’ab ‘hand 2. kakan ‘my leg’ 2a. akan ‘leg’ 3. alumal ‘your land 3a. lumal ‘land’ 4. awinam ‘your wife’ 4a. inam ‘wife’ 5. sk’op ‘his language’ 5a. k’op ‘language’ 6. yat’el ‘his work’ 6a. at’el ‘work’

  23. problem 3 h- ~ k- ‘my’ h occurs before constant-initial stem and k before a vowel-initial stem a- ~ aw- ‘your s- ~ y- ‘his’

  24. Principle 3 Forms which have a common semantic distinctiveness but which differ in phonemic form in such a way that their distribution cannot be phonologically defined, constitute a single morpheme if the forms are in complementary distribution in accordance with the following restrictions. “common semantic distinctiveness” (principle 1& 2) “but which differ in phonemic form in such a way that their distribution cannot be phonologically definable” (principle 2) “complementary distribution” “restrictions”

  25. Occurrence in the same structural series has precedence over occurrence in different structural series in the determination of morphemic status. roses , boys, lips, oxen and sleep belong to the same structural series. The genitive morpheme /-əz~ -z ~ -s/ is in a different structural series in that it occurs with both singular and plural nouns. man’s, men’s

  26. 2. Complementary distribution in different structural series constitute a basis for combining possible allomorphs into one morpheme only if there also occurs in these different structural series a morpheme which belongs to the same distribution class as the allomorphemic series in question and which itself has only one allomorph or phonologically defined allomorphs. Hypothetical Example Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns 1st person -na fi- 2nd person -so ka- 3rd person -zo zo-

  27. Problem Subject form Agreement marker after Verb stem naan^ ‘I’ -een naam ‘we’ -oom nii ‘you -aay avan^ ‘he’ -aan avaL ‘she’ -aaL avar ‘he (hon.)’ -aar atu ‘it’ -atu

  28. 3. Immediate tactical environment have precedence over nonimmediate tactical environments in determining morphemic status. in the boys died the immediate tactical environment of –s is boy-. Any combination of boys such as the boys or the boys died is the nonimmediate tactical environment of –s.

  29. 4. Contrast in identical distributional environments may be treated as submorphemic if the difference in meaning of the allomorph reflect the distribution of these forms. Show occurs with two “past participle” formation, shown, showed. The distribution of –n and –ed are not complementary at this point, i.e they contrast. According to restriction 4 this contrast is not sufficient to force us to regard –n and –ed as separate morphemes, since whatever difference of distribution.

  30. PRINCIPLE 4 An overt formal difference in a structural series constitute a morpheme if in any member of such a series, the overt formal difference and a zero structural difference are the only significant features for distinguishing a minimal unit of phonetic-semantic distinctiveness. • “An overt formal difference” means a contrast which is indicated by difference in phonemes or in the order of phonemes. e.g. The distinction between foot /fut/ and feet /fiyt/ is an overt difference. The contrast between the singular sheep /Siyp/ and the plural sheep /Siyp/ consists of a zero and is covert. • A member of a structural series may occur with a zero structural difference and an overt formal difference

  31. Problem • Walked 16. meant • Played 17. rang • Ran 18. swan • Hit 19. rode • Met 20. slept • Worked 21. bought • Fought • Jumped • Pounded • Cut • Split • Spit • Sang • Bled • Kept

  32. Principle 5 Homophonous forms are identifiable as the same or different morphemes on the basis of the following conditions. 1. Homophonous forms with distinctly different meanings constitute different morphemes. e.g. pair, pare and pear 2. Homophonous forms with related meanings constitute a single morpheme if the meaning classes are paralleled by distributional differences. e.g. run in the expressions they run and their run

  33. PRINCIPLE 6 A morpheme is isolable if it occurs under the following conditions: • In isolation • In multiple combination in at least one of which the unit with which it is combined occurs in isolation or in other combinations. • In a single combination provided the element with which it is combined occurs in isolation or in other combinations with nonunique constituents.

  34. PRINCIPLE 6 Condition 1 On the basis of the first condition of isolatability we may identify as morphemes such forms as boy, cow, run, jump, up, he this, and touch, since it is possible to utter all these forms in isolation. Condition 2 Certain morphemes never occur in isolation. e.g. the –er in such words as dancer, worker, jumper, and provider. Nevertheless, we can identify –er as a morpheme, since the elements with which it occurs may be found in isolation. e.g. dance, work, jump and provide

  35. PRINCIPLE 6 • The second condition of isolatability does not require that all combining elements have an independent occurrence, but only that at least one form in any such structural series have the capacity of occurrence in isolation or in other combinations. • The prefix con- occurs in combinations, e.g. conceive, consume, contain, condense, but the form dense occurs in isolation. This provides justification for considering con- a morpheme. • Added evidence is available in the fact that the stem form occur in other combinations. e.g. perceive, resume, detain

  36. PRINCIPLE 6 Condition 3 There are some morphemes which occur in only one combination. e.g. cran- in cranberry rasp- in raspberry cray- in crayfish

  37. Morphemes Morphemes (Smallest meaningful unit) Free Morphs Bound Morphs E.g.: girl, time E.g.: -s, -ive Morphs which have different forms are called allomorphs.

  38. Allomorph Phonologically Conditioned Plural forms in English |s| hits |iz| sneezes |z| dogs Lexically Conditioned Plurals sheep, oxen (each one has a different form and cannot be predicted) Morphologically Conditioned The choice of allomorphs –ceive, -cept is systematically determined by the morpheme added to them) Receiver, deceiver Suppletion is an extreme form of allomorph in which two completely different roots realize the same morpheme. Examples are go | went Be | is| was | were | am Good | better | best Bad | worse | worst One | first Two | second

  39. Suppletion is an extreme form of allomorph in which two completely different roots realize the same morpheme. Examples are go | went Be | is| was | were | am Good | better | best Bad | worse | worst One | first Two | second

  40. Word Building Elements • Roots • Root is the irreducable core of a word-walk • Function words • Functional words signals the grammatical information or logical relation in a sentence • Articles-a, the; demonstratices: this ,that etc • Stems-Bases are called stem only in the context of inflectional morphology • Bases- All roots are bases

  41. Morphology Inflection Word-formation Derivation Compounding (affixation) (more than one root) Class-maintaining Class changing Compound Compound Compound Nouns Verbs Adjectives

  42. INFLECTION • Inflection is the outer layer of the morphology and derivation is the inner layer. • steward stewardesses *stewards-esses • motorbike motorbikes *motorsbike • painter painters *paintser • Root paint • Affixes re-(paint)-ed • Stem repaint(-ed) • Morphemes AGAIN-PAINT-PAST

  43. INFLECTION • Inflectional categories such as tense, voice, and number play an important role in syntax and are called morphosyntactic categories. • For example case inflections show the relation between nouns and verbs. • ex. • avan naay-aik kamp-aal aTi-tt-aan • he dog_ACC stick_INS beat_PAST-3PS

  44. INFLECTION • Inflectional morphemes are generally productive. • Ex. • The inflectional morphemes of PLURAL, PAST, etc. are productive. • boy-s, toys, etc. • walk-ed, talk-ed, cook-ed, etc. • Where as derivative morphemes are not productive (selective, *wantive; construction, *talkion)  

  45. INFLECTION • Inflectional morphemes are semantically more regular than derivational ones. • Ex. • Books, bags, girls – The inflectional suffix -s denotes plurality regularly. • Construction, destruction, instruction, etc. – • The meaning conveyed by the derivative suffix –ion is not regular. The predictability of meaning is absent. 

  46. INFLECTION • Inflections create full conjugations and declensions for verbs and nouns. Derivation usually produce gaps. • Inflection Derivation • arrive arrived arrival • Dispose disposed disposal • Improve improved *improval

  47. TYPES OF INFLECTION Suffixes   walk-ed walk-s walk-ing cook-ed cook-s cook-ing va-nt-aan COME-PAST-THIRD PERSON MASCULEINE SINGULAR Prefixes un-fortunate im-possible

  48. Portmanteau Latin noun ANNUS ‘year’ Singular Plural Nominative ann-us ann-i: Vocative ann-e ann-i: Accusative ann-um ann-o:s Genitive ann-i: ann-o:rum Dati ann-o: ann-i:s Ablative ann-o: ann-i:s

  49. Circumfixes • A prefix and a suffix act together to surround a base  German:  film-en ‘to film’ ge-film-t ‘filmed frag-en ‘ to ask ge-frag-t ‘asked’ lob-en ‘to praise’ ge-lob-t ‘parised’ zeig-en ‘to snow’ ge-zeig-t ‘shown’ *ge-film, etc. do not occur.

  50. Infixes •  Inflixes create discontinuous bases. Charau, a language of Vietnam sulat ‘write’ s-um--ulat ‘wrote s-in-ulat ‘was written’