Chapter 3 Morphology: The Analysis Of Word Structure
How to segment this word? Anti/ dis/ establish/ ment/ ari/ an/ ism
“What’s in a name? • That which we call a rose • By any other name would smell as sweet.” • (Shakespeare)
2. Free morphemes: Morphemes that can constitute words by themselves are called free morphemes, such as“man”,“sick”.
Bound morpheme categories: a.Prefixes:morphemes that occur only before other morphemes, such as, dis-in “dishonest”, bi-in“bicycle”
c. Infixes: morphemes that are inserted into other morphemes, such as, -um-inserted into “fikas”, which becomes“fumikas”in the language, Bontoc
N A V Af Af A teach er un kind
V V A Af Af black en ed
A N Af B B Af in ept salv ation
Inter-relation of morpheme natures and types: Free Bound house, boy, teacher, sentence, type, cut, clear, at, yesterday, patiently, cold………. (per)ceive, (ad)mit, huckle(berry), (in)ept, …(and less than a hundread more) Root (girl)s, (cook)ed, (hunt)ing, (teach)er, un(happy), dis(agree), (arriv)al, (cav)ity, (danger)ous, re(do), (scholar)ship,……….. none Affix
N V A V Af Af Af act ive ate ion
A A A V Af V Af Af V Af un lock able un lock able
N V V V A V A A A N N N Adv
NOTE: When someone uses such words as coolth (like warmth), fullen (like weaken), usually it is either an error or an attempt at humor. Our knowledge of the related pairs, may permit us to use these examples in forming new words, by analogy with the existing lexical items.
Play on words/morphemes to create humor: (comic strips) …This is very strange. …If a vegetarian is someone who eats vegetables. …What does that make a humanitarian?
3. Meaning is not always transcendental: a. predictable ex. girlfriend; post office b. partially predictable ex. blackboard; c. completely unpredictable ex. cathouse; jack-in-a-box; redcoat
Exocentric compound: A compound whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of its parts ( e.g. redneck, since its referent is not a type of neck)