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Morphology PowerPoint Presentation

Morphology

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Morphology

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  1. Morphology Morphology 1

  2. a morpheme • the smallest unit of grammatical analysis. Morphology 1

  3. be identifiable from one word to another and Contribute in some way to the meaning of the whole word. Morphology 1

  4. MORPHEMES • inflectional work – work(-s) work – work (-ed) • paradigm • derivational read + -er un- + tie Morphology 1

  5. inflectional rules - relate different forms of the same lexeme (an abstract kind of word of which the word forms are all inflectional variants) • word-formation - relate two different lexemes. Morphology 1

  6. word-formation: • derivation and compounding Morphology 1

  7. DERIVATION • different words with a shared base. • WORD CLASSES (primary grammatical categories) • CONVERSION (or ZERO DERIVATION): • word passing from one word class to another (or several others) without taking any affix Morphology 1

  8. COMPOUNDS • A compound is a word composed of more than one free morpheme Morphology 1

  9. COMPOUND VERBS: • COMPOUND ADJECTIVES • COMPOUND NOUNS • HEADED AND HEADLESS COMPOUNDS • BLENDS AND ACRONYMS • COMPOUNDS CONTAINING BOUND COMBINING FORMS • PHRASAL WORDS Morphology 1

  10. COMPOUND VERBS • VERB_VERB (VV) • stir-fry, freeze-dry • NOUN –VERB (NV) • hand-wash, air-condition , steam-clean • ADJECTIVE-VERB (AV) • dry-clean, whitewash • PREPOSITION-VERB (PV) underestimate, outrun, overcook • ADVERB-VERB (Ad-V) • downsize, upgrade Morphology 1

  11. right-headed Morphology 1

  12. The rightmost element – head = the activity denoted by the compound as whole is a variety of the activity denoted by that rightmost element. Morphology 1

  13. Hyphenation • Unhyphenated,solid -compound verbs with single-syllable modifiers • overhang • hyphenated - longer modifiers • Air-condition Morphology 1

  14. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES • a modifier of a noun • It consists of two or more morphemes of which the left-hand component limits or changes the modification of the right-hand one Morphology 1

  15. the dark-green dress": • dark limits the green • that modifies dress. Morphology 1

  16. NOUN-ADJECTIVE (NA) sky-high, coal-black, oil-rich • ADJECTIVE-ADJECTIVE (AA) grey-green, red-hot • PREPOSITION-ADJECTIVE (PA) underfull, overactive Morphology 1

  17. VA structure, corresponding to the VV verbs would resemble hypothetical „sing-happy“ (happy enough to sing), • They scarcely exist, even though it is easy enough to find plausible meanings for them. • This reflects the relative reluctance of verbs to participate in compounding generally in English. • All the compounds here are again right – headed. Morphology 1

  18. Solid compound adjectives • earsplitting, eyecatching, and downtown. (AmE) • ear-splitting, eye-catching (BrE) • Numbers that are spelled out and havethe suffix-fold added: "fifteenfold", "sixfold". • Points of the compass: • northwest, northwester, northwesterly,northwestwards, but not North-West Frontier. Morphology 1

  19. Hyphenated compound adjectives • A compound adjective is hyphenated if the hyphen helps the reader differentiate a compound adjective from two adjacent adjectives that each independently modify the noun. Morphology 1

  20. "acetic acid solution": a bitter solution producing vinegar or acetic acid (acetic + acid + solution) • "acetic-acid solution": a solution of acetic acid Morphology 1

  21. old English scholar • Old English scholar • De facto proceedings Morphology 1

  22. old English scholar: an old person who is English and a scholar, or an old scholar who studies English • "Old English scholar": a scholar of Old English. • "De facto proceedings" (not "de-facto") Morphology 1

  23. no risk of ambiguities - may be written without a hyphen: • Sunday morning walk. Morphology 1

  24. COMPOUND NOUNS • Verb- noun (VN): swearword, drophammer, playtime • Noun-noun (NN): hairnet, mosquito net, butterfly net, hair restorer • Adjective-noun (AN): blackboard, greenstone, faintheart • Preposition – noun (PN): in-group, outpost, overcoat Morphology 1

  25. Most of these are also right-headed. Morphology 1

  26. In fact, almost any pair of nouns can be juxtaposed in English so as to form a compound or a phrase – provided that there is something that this compound or phrase could plausibly mean. Morphology 1

  27. solid or closed: • hyphenated • open or spaced form consisting of newer combinations of usually longer words, such as distance learning, player piano, lawn tennis, etc. Morphology 1

  28. container ship/container-ship/containership • and • particle board/particle-board/particleboard. Morphology 1

  29. two kinds of NN compound. • Primary or root compound • (hairnet, mosquito net) • Secondary or verbal compound • (hair restorer) Morphology 1

  30. hairnet mosquito net butterfly net hair restorer Morphology 1

  31. restorer in hair restorer is derived from a verb (restore). Morphology 1

  32. HEADED AND HEADLESS COMPOUNDS: Morphology 1

  33. Adjective-noun (AN): • blackboard • greenstone • faintheart Morphology 1

  34. faintheart Morphology 1

  35. faintheart- headless -its status as a noun is not determined by either of its components. • Headless AN compoundsloudmouth,redshank (a kind of a bird that has red legs) • headless NN compoundsstickleback( a kind of fish with spines on its back), sabretooth. Morphology 1

  36. exocentric– headless compounds – having a centre „outside themselves“ • endocentric. – headed compounds - having an „internal centre“ Morphology 1

  37. Blends and acronyms Morphology 1

  38. Talkathon • Cheesburger • Smog Morphology 1

  39. a kind of compound where at least one component is reproduced only partially - blends. Morphology 1

  40. smog (smoke + fog) • talkathon (talk + marathon) • cheeseburger (cheese + hamburger) Morphology 1

  41. acronyms– • NATO (for North Atlantic Treaty Organization), ANZAC (for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps), RAM (random access memory), SCSI (pronounced scuzzy, small computer system interface), AIDS (aquired immune deficiency syndrome) . Morphology 1

  42. If the conventional way of reading the string is by pronouncing the name of each letter in turn, as with USA and RP (received pronunciation), then it is not an acronym but an abbreviation. Morphology 1

  43. Compounds containing bound combining forms. Morphology 1

  44. compounds that are made up of bound roots, known as combining forms. • Anthropology, sociology, cardiogram, electrocardiogram, retrograde, retrospect, Morphology 1

  45. For most of these the meaning of the whole is clearly determinable from that of the parts. Morphology 1

  46. For example: anthrop (o) – human plus –(o) logy, science or study, yields a word that means science or study of human beings and Morphology 1

  47. Phrasal words Morphology 1

  48. jack-in-the-box. Morphology 1

  49. Structurally this has the appearance of a noun phrase in which the head noun, jack, is modified by a prepositional phrase, in the box , exactly parallel to the phrases : Morphology 1

  50. People in the street or (a) book on the shelf. Morphology 1