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Ancient Egypt. Egyptian empire 1450 B.C. OLD KINGDOM. Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods. Egyptians built pyramids at Giza. Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom.

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Old kingdom

  • Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods.

  • Egyptians built pyramids at Giza.

  • Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom

Middle kingdom

  • Large drainage project created arable farmland

  • Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete.

  • Corruption and rebellions were common

  • Hyksos invaded and occupied the delta region.

New kingdom

  • Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River

  • Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria

  • Egyptian power declined.


For centuries, Egypt traded or fought with Nubia.

During the New Kingdom, Egypt conquered Nubia.

  • Nubians served in Egyptian armies and influenced Egyptian culture.

    When Egypt declined, Nubia conquered Egypt.

  • Nubians did not see themselves as conquerors. They respected Egyptian traditions.


  • Belief that many gods and goddesses ruled the world and the afterlife.

    • Amon-Re was the sun god.

    • Osiris was the god of the underworld and of the Nile.

  • The pharaoh was believed to be a god as well as a monarch.

  • Belief in eternal life after death.

  • Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them through the afterworld.

  • Practiced mummification, the preservation of body for use in the next life.

Advances in learning
Advances in Learning

  • Developed a form of picture writing called hieroglyphics.

  • Doctors diagnosed and cured

    illnesses, performed surgery, and developed medicines still used


  • Developed 12-month calendar on which modern calendar is based.

  • Astronomers mapped constellations and charted movement of the

  • planets.

  • Developed practical geometry.

  • Skilled in design and engineering.

Advances in the arts
Advances in the Arts

  • Statues, paintings, and writings tell us about ancient Egyptian values and attitudes.

  • Developed painting style that remained unchanged for thousands of years.

  • Wrote hymns and prayers to the gods, proverbs, love poems, stories of victory in battle, and folk tales.

  • Built pyramids and other great buildings, such as temple of Ramses II.

Class system
Class System


Earthly leader; considered a god


Served gods and goddesses


Fought pharaoh’s wars


Made furniture, jewelry, and fabrics for

pharaohs and nobles


Worked in the fields and served the pharaoh

Do not write the nile theory
**Do not Write**The Nile Theory

  • Attempt to Explain how the Body works and why people get sick

  • Related to their understanding of how the world works

    • River Nile

  • Channels (River)

    • Mixture of Blood and Air

    • Flows from the centre to extremities

  • Disease

    • Caused by blockages of the channels

      • Caused by rotting food

      • Letting off gases

      • Prevents normal flow

Do not write mummification
**Do not write** Mummification

Excessive respect for the Dead body

Will hinder medical developments for many years

Sacred Body does not allow for exploration or experimentation.

Dissection Forbidden

  • (A) ANUBIS The priest in charge of the mummification wore the mask of Anubis (the god of the dead). (B) INCENSE A priest stands by, holding sweet-smelling incense. (C) WRAPPING THE BODY The body, or mummy, was wrapped in layers of linen before being placed in the coffin. (D) NATRON Natron, a kind of soda, was placed in the body to dry it out before it was wrapped in linen. (E) SOAKING THE BANDAGES Sometimes, linen strips were soaked in plaster so they would harden when dry.

The fertile crescent
The Fertile Crescent

  • The Fertile Crescent is the fertile land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

  • The first civilization in the Fertile Crescent was discovered in Mesopotamia, which means land between the rivers

  • The first Sumerian cities emerged in southern Mesopotamia around 3200 B.C.

Sumerian civilization
Sumerian Civilization


    • City-states with hereditary rulers.

    • Ruler led army in war and enforced laws.

    • Complex government with scribes to collect taxes

      and keep records.


    • Each state had distinct social hierarchy,or system of ranks.

    • Most people were peasant farmers.

    • Women had legal rights; some engaged in trade and owned property


    • Believed gods controlled every aspect of life.

    • Saw afterlife as a grim place. Everybody would go into darkness and eat dust.

    • To keep the gods happy, each city built a ziggurat, or pyramid


Invaders traders and empire builders
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders

A series of strong rulers united the lands of the Fertile Crescent into well organized empires.

Again and again, nomadic warriors invaded the rich cities of the Fertile Crescent. Some looted and burned the cities. Others stayed to rule them.

2300 B.C. –Sargon, the ruler of Akkad, conquered Sumer and built the first known empire.

1790 B.C.–Hammurabi, King of Babylon, united the Babylonian empire.

The code of hammurabi
The Code of Hammurabi

Hammurabi’s code was the first attempt by a ruler to codify,or arrange and set down in writing, all of the laws that would govern a state.

One section codified criminal law, the branch of law that deals with offenses against others, such as robbery and murder.

Another section codified civil law,the branch that deals with private rights and matters, such as business contracts, taxes, and property inheritance.

Examples of hammurabi s code
Examples of Hammurabi’s Code

  • If any one ensnares another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death.

  • If any one brings an accusation against a man, and the accused goes to the river and leaps into the river, if he sinks in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river proves that the accused is not guilty, and he escapes unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser.

  • If any one brings an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if a capital offense is charged, be put to death.

  • If a Builder builds a house for someone, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built falls in and kills its owner, then that builder shall be put to death.

  •  If any one break a hole into a house (break in to steal), he shall be put to death before that hole and be buried.

  • If the wife of one man on account of another man has their mates (her husband and the other man's wife) murdered, both of them shall be impaled.

  • If the "finger is pointed" at a man's wife about another man, but she is not caught sleeping with the other man, she shall jump into the river for her husband.

  • If a man's wife be surprised (in flagrante delicto) with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves