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Chapter 21. The Rise of Progressivism. Varieties of Progressivism. Anti-Monopoly: the fear of centralized power Social Cohesion: individuals are not autonomous but part of a great web Knowledge: applying the principles of natural and social sciences to society

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chapter 21

Chapter 21

The Rise of Progressivism

varieties of progressivism
Varieties of Progressivism
  • Anti-Monopoly: the fear of centralized power
  • Social Cohesion: individuals are not autonomous but part of a great web
  • Knowledge: applying the principles of natural and social sciences to society
  • Modern Government: must play a role to improve society
social reformers
  • Jane Addams Pioneer in the field of social work who founded the settlement house movement through the establishment of Hull House in Chicago, Illinois.
  • Margaret Sanger Educated urban poor about the benefits of family planning through birth control. She founded the organization that became Planned Parenthood.
  • Booker T. Washington Former slave who founded the Tuskegee Institute that focused on teaching African-Americans trade skills to earn a living and gain the trust of white society.
  • W.E.B. DuBois Founder of the NAACP, and a Harvard-educated professor who focused on the need for a traditional liberal arts education for African-Americans who could then insist upon equal treatment and rights from white society
  • Crusading journalists who dug up things we did not want to see
  • Investigated government, labor unions, etc
  • Explored problems in child labor, prostitution, family, immigration
social gospel
Social Gospel
  • Started in 1900
  • Christian welfare organization with military and ministry structure
hull house1
Hull House
  • Founded in Chicago by Jane Addams in 1889
  • Helped immigrant families in language and customs
  • Led to the profession of Social Workers
rise in professions
Rise in Professions
  • 1901 – American Medical Association
  • Women:
    • Social Workers
    • Nursing
    • Librarians
    • Grammar School teachers – 90% of professional women
women and reform
Women and Reform
  • Technology innovations (Tin Can, etc)
  • Declining family size
  • Rise in Education
  • Shunned marriage
  • “Boston Marriage”
  • Divorce rate goes up
women suffrage1
Women Suffrage
  • The fight for women to vote
  • Supported by both men and women
  • National American Women Suffrage Association
    • 1893 – 13,000
    • 1917 – 2 million
    • By 1919 – 39 states had granted women the right to vote in state elections
  • Threat to the natural order
  • Women were made mans helper
  • Man dominated society
  • Suffrage would lead to
    • Promiscuity
    • Looseness
    • Neglect of children
the assault on the parties
  • Secret Ballot
    • Between 1880 – 1890 states adopted secret ballots
      • Australian Ballot
        • Printed at government expense
        • Distributed at the polls
        • Listed all candidates
        • Secret
municipal reform
Municipal Reform
  • Commissioner Plan
    • Galveston Texas 1900
    • Mayor and city council replaced by an elected nonpartisan commission
  • City-Manager Plan
    • Elected officials hire an outside expert
state reform
State Reform
  • Most in the mid west (Wisconsin)
    • Initiative: going around the legislature and submit new legislation to the voter
    • Referendum: legislatures could submit actions to the voters
    • Direct Primary: give people the ability to pick candidates
    • Recall: ability for the voter to remove a public official from office
crusases for order and reform
  • Temperance Movement
    • Women’s Christian Temperance Union
      • Largest women’s organization in American history – 1911
    • Anti Saloon league
    • 18th Amend – Jan 1920 – prohibited sale, manufacture, distribution of alcohol in US
  • Agreed on the need for basic structural changes in the economy
  • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
    • Known as Wobblies
    • A single union for all workers and abolition of the “wage slave” system
progressive era amendments
Progressive Era Amendments
  • 16th (1913)Granted Congress the power to tax income.
  • 17th (1913)Provided for the direct election of U.S. Senators.
  • 18th (1919)Prohibited making, selling, or transporting alcohol.
  • 19th (1920)Provided women suffrage (voting).