Chapter 21 Genomes and Their Evolution
Genomics • ______________ is a new approach to biology concerned with the study of the ___________ set of __________ in an organism. • Some organisms whose _________ have been completely sequenced include: E. coli(bacteria), D. melanogaster (fly), and M. musculus (field mouse)
The Human __________ Project was an international collaboration amongst scientists to _________ the human __________. • It was completed in 2003 and published by 2006.
Bioinformatics • _____________ is the field of biology that is concerned with ___________ and __________ the vast amounts of biological data gleaned from ___________. Computers are a valuable tool.
Why Conduct Genomic Studies? • 1. The info we have gained gives us valuable insights into the fundamental questions about genome organization, ___________ of gene expression, growth and _____________, and _______________. • 2.The info is also providing us with information into the causes of _________ and possible _________ options.
Proteomics • The successes in the field of genomics has encouraged scientists to study sets of __________ encoded by the genes. This study is called __________.
Functional ____________ holds significant promise for the discovery of disease markers, for the detection of new _________, and as a powerful tool to further our understanding of basic biological processes and mechanisms.
The Human Genome • ________ codes for proteins or is ____________ into rRNA or tRNA. • ____ codes for gene ____________ sequences and introns. • The remaining ________ includes ____________ (former genes that have accumulated so many mutations that they are now nonfunctional) and ___________ DNA.
Much of the ________ DNA contains ___________ elements. These are regions that can move or jump from one chromosome to another. • Barbara __________ pioneered the study of “_________ genes.” The red streaks represent transposons or “jumping genes” The lack of color on the body of these Bettas is due to “jumping genes”
Genomics and Evolution • By comparing genomes of related species, scientists are discovering important clues to our ________________ past. • The field of biology concerned with the study of evolutionary development is called ________. • _________ or HOX genes control development and these genes are extremely conserved-so much so that there is virtually no difference between fruit flies and ___________ in one long stretch of the ______________. “little people with wings”