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Chapter 21. Training for Anaerobic and Aerobic Power. Training Principles. Overload principle Overload may be achieved using a combination of Intensity Duration Frequency. Training Principles. Specificity principle Exercise training specificity Specificity of O 2max

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chapter 21

Chapter 21

Training for Anaerobic

and Aerobic Power

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

training principles
Training Principles
  • Overload principle
  • Overload may be achieved using a combination of
    • Intensity
    • Duration
    • Frequency

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

training principles1
Training Principles
  • Specificity principle
    • Exercise training specificity
    • Specificity of O2max
    • Specificity of local changes
  • Individual differences principle
  • Reversibility principle
    • Detraining

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

anaerobic system changes with training
Anaerobic System Changes with Training
  • Increases in resting muscle levels of
    • ATP
    • PCr
    • Free creatine
    • Glycogen
    • Glycolytic enzymes
  • Resulting in increased capacity to generate blood lactate

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

aerobic system changes with training
Aerobic System Changes with Training
  • Metabolic adaptations include
    • Number and size of mitochondria
    • Aerobic system enzymes
    • Fat and carbohydrate metabolism
    • Muscle fiber type and size
    • Myoglobin concentration

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

aerobic system changes with training1
Aerobic System Changes with Training
  • Cardiovascular adaptations
    • Cardiac hypertrophy: the “athlete’s heart”
    • Plasma volume
    • Heart rate
    • Stroke volume
    • Cardiac output
    • Oxygen extraction (a- O2 difference)
    • Blood flow and distribution
    • Blood pressure

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

slide7
McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition
aerobic system changes with training2
Aerobic System Changes with Training
  • Pulmonary adaptations with training
    • Maximal exercise
      • Increases ventilation
    • Submaximal exercise
      • Reduces the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen
      • Tidal volume increases and breathing frequency decreases
    • Training may benefit ventilatory endurance.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

aerobic system changes with training3
Aerobic System Changes with Training
  • Blood lactate concentration
    • Decreased production
    • Increased clearance

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

other aerobic training adaptations
Other Aerobic Training Adaptations
  • Body composition changes
    • Increased lean mass
    • Decreased fat mass
  • Body heat transfer
  • Performance changes
  • Psychologic benefits

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

slide11
McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition
factors that affect the aerobic training response
Factors that Affect the Aerobic Training Response
  • Initial level of aerobic fitness
  • Training intensity
  • Training duration
  • Training frequency

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

training intensity
Training Intensity
  • Overload intensity
    • Train at a percentage of HRmax
      • 55 – 70% HRmax to get a training effect
      • Age-predicted maximum heart rates
      • Karvonen method
  • Perception of effect
  • Lactate threshold

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

slide14
McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition
acsm s updated fitness guidelines and recommendations
ACSM’s Updated Fitness Guidelines and Recommendations
  • Cardiovascular
    • 40 – 85% of O2max
    • 55 –90% HR max
    • 3 or more days per week
    • 20 – 60 minutes

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

acsm s updated fitness guidelines and recommendations1
ACSM’s Updated Fitness Guidelines and Recommendations
  • Muscular strength
    • One set of 8 – 10 different exercises
    • 8 – 12 reps
    • 2 – 3 days per week
  • Joint flexibility
    • Static and dynamic range of motion exercises, 4 reps
    • 2 to 3 times per week

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

trainability and genes
Trainability and Genes
  • Responses to training are very dependent upon genetics.
    • Responder vs. nonresponder

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

maintenance of aerobic fitness gains
Maintenance of Aerobic Fitness Gains
  • Intensity plays principal role
  • Tapering for peak performance

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

methods of training
Methods of Training
  • Anaerobic training
    • Intramuscular high-energy phosphates
    • Lactate-generating capacity
  • Aerobic training
    • Interval training
    • Continuous training
    • Fartlek training

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

overtraining
Overtraining
  • Sympathetic form
    • Hyperexcitability
    • Restlessness
    • Impaired performance
  • Parasympathetic form
    • Increased vagal activity at rest
    • Chronic fatigue during exercise and recovery

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

slide21
McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition
slide22
Selected mechanisms underlying genesis of overtraining syndrome in endurance sports
    • Overload
    • Overreaching
    • Overtraining syndrome

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

exercising during pregnancy
Exercising During Pregnancy
  • Exercise effects on the mother
    • Increases in
      • Blood volume
      • Resting oxygen consumption
      • Resting heart rate
      • Ventilatory response to exercise

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

exercising during pregnancy1
Exercising During Pregnancy
  • Exercise effects on the fetus
    • Reduced placental blood flow
    • Fetal hyperthermia
    • Reduced fetal glucose supply

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition