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Key Terms – Between the Wars

Key Terms – Between the Wars. Armenian Massacre 19 th Amendment Benito Mussolini Fascism The Great Depression Margin Franklin D. Roosevelt New Deal. Failure of the League of Nations.

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Key Terms – Between the Wars

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  1. Key Terms – Between the Wars • Armenian Massacre • 19th Amendment • Benito Mussolini • Fascism • The Great Depression • Margin • Franklin D. Roosevelt • New Deal

  2. Failure of the League of Nations • The creation of the League of Nations was intended to become a forum for major nations to settle disputes through a neutral third party. • Consequences for continued aggression or ignorance of a law would lead to trade blockades to force actions. • Considering many countries did not enforce these consequences, the League of Nations failed in its goal. • The League also indirectly promoted imperialism by allowing mandates to exist which in essence allowed larger nations to control other smaller ones under the intent of helping them develop their own governments.

  3. The Armenian Massacre (1915 - 1917) • Armenians were Christians who resided in the northeastern region of the Ottoman Empire (near the Caucasus Mountains). • They were allowed to live peacefully until the Young Turks movement led to their persecution as potential dissidents. • They would be massacred by the sultans between 1894-1897. • With the advent of World War I, the Armenians were viewed as subversives and massacred from 1915-1917. • In 1915, 2 million Armenians lived in Turkey, by 1990, only 60,000 remained

  4. The State of Turkey • Ataturk would rule Turkey as a dictator in 1923; creating a one party system and refusing government representation for many groups. • His biggest contribution was the removal of Sharia law (Islamic law); by doing this, he effectively separated church and state, westernizing Turkey. • He would encourage industrialization to create jobs. • His only opposition would come from the Islamic Party.

  5. United States Women believed that with the passage of the 15th Amendment, they would gain suffrage. Women like Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton would argue for more rights and would gain some rights but not suffrage. Their involvement in World War I also gave them the push necessary to acquire suffrage. In 1920, the 19th Amendment would be passed granting women's suffrage. Women's Suffrage in Britain and the United States • Britain • Progress occurred under Emmeline Pankhurst and her suffragettes. • Would petition for rights through civil disobedience. • Contributions during World War I led to suffrage being granted in 1918.

  6. Background to Fascism • The Italians felt that they were unfairly left out of the Treaty of Versailles and were entitled to receive more territory in exchange for their loss of troops in World War I. • World War I would usher in a difficult period for the Italians of economic depression and unemployment. • Benito Mussolini would make a name for himself as the leader of the Fascist Party and gain support for having actual plans on how to deal with the issues brought on by the war.

  7. Mussolini and Fascist Italy • Fascism → ideology that sought to strengthen the state through nationalism and militarism by uniting government and economic entities to provide an alternative to capitalism and socialism. • Mussolini would gain supporters in unemployed soldiers and would slowly kill off opposition. • An armed march into Rome in 1922 led to Mussolini being named prime minister.

  8. The Italian Dictatorship • Upon becoming prime minister, Mussolini outlawed all political parties among other massive changes: • Secret police ran rampant in Italy • Government regulated economic activities • Newspapers and radio stations were heavily censored. • Schools became 'soldier factories'. • Civil rights were suspended in many areas.

  9. The Great Depression in the U.S. • The economic growth brought on by World War I masked many of the issues with the U.S. economy. • Agriculture: • Farmers overproduced goods and were getting very low prices on their goods. • Many began to default on mortgages and loans leading to bank failure • Credit: • People bought more goods on credit and then failed to make payments • Stocks: • Many stocks were bought on margin (borrowed money from brokers). • When stocks failed many people attempted to sell their stocks which led to a panic then a massive crash in October 1929. • With this stock market crash, the Great Depression (worldwide poor economic activity) began.

  10. The Depression

  11. Repercussions • U.S. overseas investors began to call in their debts from other countries forcing those people to call in debts from underdeveloped countries. • Manufacturers tried to sell their now overproduced and under-consumed goods to no avail leading to a production stall. • Unemployment became rampant: • 17% of British citizens were unemployed in 1932. • 25% of American citizens were unemployed in 1933. • Germany would be leveled by the depression and hyperinflation led to worthless currency and mass unemployment creating a setting for revolution.

  12. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Alphabet Soup • Franklin D. Roosevelt → president who introduced the New Deal which would halt the progression of the depression. • Started massive public works projects to stimulate the economy, removed the government from the gold standard, introduced social security, re-instilled confidence in banks through programs.

  13. France: Numerous political groups would grow out from the issues caused by the depression. The Popular Front Party (composed of communists, socialists, and radicals) would attempt to pass its own version of the New Deal which failed. Solutions Elsewhere • Britain: • Stood pat and believed that balancing the budget would help. • The balanced budget and subsistence welfare helped get the country back on track by 1932.

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