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Age of Nationalism

Age of Nationalism. 1830s-1890s. Flip. The three key ideas of the age of nationalism were: unification, reformers and wars. Unification Reformers Wars. Flip. Where unification took place in Europe. Date. Flip. Unification took place in Italy, Germany, Ireland, France and England.

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Age of Nationalism

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  1. Age of Nationalism 1830s-1890s Flip

  2. The three key ideas of the age of nationalism were: unification, reformers and wars. • Unification • Reformers • Wars Flip

  3. Where unification took place in Europe Date Flip

  4. Unification took place in Italy, Germany, Ireland, France and England • Italy • Germany • Ireland • France • England Flip

  5. Important wars that took place during the age of nationalism Date Flip

  6. The wars that occurred were the Austro-Prussian war, the Franco-Prussian war, the Austro-Sardinian War, the Russo-Japanese war, the Crimean war and the Danish War. • Austro-Prussian War • Franco-Prussian War • Austro-Sardinian War • Russo-Japanese war • Danish War • Crimean War Flip

  7. Reformers 1800s Flip

  8. Reformers during the age of nationalism were: Alexander II, William Gladstone, Nicholas II, David Lloyd George, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, Sergei Witte, Frederick List, Wiliam II, Jean Juare, and Camillo Cavour Flip

  9. The approaches to unifying Italy 1815-1848 Flip

  10. The first was Mazzini, second was Gioberti, with a federation of the states under the presidency of the pope. The third was Victor Emmanuel, Sardinia’s monarch with a liberal constituion. Garibaldi and Cavour also played large parts in unifying Italy. • Mazzini • Garibaldi • Cavour Flip

  11. Garibaldi in Italian unification 1860-1861 Flip

  12. A super patriot and known as the sword of Italian unification. He personified the romantic, revolutionary nationalism of Mazzini and 1848. He liberated the kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1860 with the help of his guerrilla band of Red Shirts. The new kingdom of Italy included Venice by 1866 and Rome by 1870, was a parliamentary monarchy under Victor Emmanuel. Flip

  13. Camillo Cavour, the dominant figure in Sardinian government 1850-1861 Flip

  14. His national goals were limited and realistic: He sought unity for only the states of Northern and central Italy. He used realpolitiks. He knew that Sardinia could not drive out Austria and unify Italy under Victor Emmanuel without an ally, so he formed a secret alliance with Napoleon III. He managed to trick Austria into attacking so France would come to Italy’s aid. He was known as the brain of Italian unification. • Realpolitiks • Napoleon III Flip

  15. Mazzini 1866 Flip

  16. He is known as the heart of Italian unification. He wanted a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and will of the people. He symbolized romanticism and inspired Garibaldi. • Related Ideas Flip

  17. The Danish War 1864 Flip

  18. Prussia and Austria formed an alliance and went to war with Denmark, which was quickly defeated. Prussia got Schleiswig and Austria got Holstein. Bismarck began to provoke arguments with Austria, which led to the Austro-Prussian war. • Austro-Prussian War • Schleiswig-Holstein Question Flip

  19. The Austro-Sardinian War 1859 Flip

  20. Cavour provoked Austria into declaring war so that French would come to Italy’s aid. Austrians were defeated and they pulled out of Lombardy, but Napoleon III backed out of his deal with Cavour and made a separate peace with Austria in the Peace of Villafranca. • Cavour • Napoleon III • Peace of Villafranca Flip

  21. The Austro-Prussian War 1866 Flip

  22. Also known as the Seven Weeks War. Prussia accused Austria of violating German confederation agreements, which provoked the war with Austria. The Prussians soon defeated Austria because Bismarck had skillfully neutralized Russia and France so Austria couldn’t make any major alliances. The war ended with the Treaty of Prague. • Bismarck • Treaty of Prague Flip

  23. The Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871 Flip

  24. It began because of the Ems Dispatch. Bismarck realized that a war with France would bring the South German states closer, so he formed an alliance with them. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was captured during the war and later a 3rd French Republic was proclaimed. In 1871, a starving Paris surrendered to Germany. The war ended with the Treaty of Frankfurt. • Ems Dispatch • Bismarck • Treaty of Frankfurt Flip

  25. The Treaty of Prague 1866 Flip

  26. The Treaty of Prague ended the Austro-Prussian war. Prussia gained Schleiswig and Holstein. Prussia also annexed some Northern German states. The German confederation was dissolved and the new North German Confederation was created, led by Prussia. Austria was kept out. • North German Confederation • Schleiswig-Holstein Question Flip

  27. The Peace of Villafranca 1859 Flip

  28. This peace got France out of the Austro-Sardinian war. It also let Austria keep Venetia although Italy was given Lombardy. Furious that Napoleon III had done this, Cavour resigned, but returned to power in 1860 and achieved his original goal of a unified Northern Italy. Flip

  29. The Treaty of Frankfurt 1871 Flip

  30. This treaty ended the Franco-Prussian war. All the independent southern German states were added to Germany, completing German unification. France was forced to cede Alsace and Lorraine to Germany as well as pay a huge sum of money. William I was declared the Emperor of Germany in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles. Flip

  31. The Schleiswig-Holstein Question 1863 Flip

  32. In 1863, the Danish parliament annexed Schleiswig, which infuriated German nationalists. Austria and Prussia formed an alliance to take action against Denmark. This led to the Danish war, which was the first of Bismarck’s wars. • Danish War • Bismarck Flip

  33. The Ems Dispatch 1870 Flip

  34. In 1870, the foreign minister of France went to Ems to speak with William I of Prussia about who the new monarch of Spain was going to be. Bismarck edited their conversation, making it appear as if they insulted each other. As a result, Napoleon III declared war July 19, 1870. • Related Ideas Flip

  35. Bismarck Flip

  36. He used realpolitik and his goal was to secure power for himself and Prussia. In a speech he said that “blood and iron” would solve Germany’s problems. His attempts to annex Schleiswig-Holstein led to the Danish war, then to the Austro-Prussian war. Created the new North German Confederation, led by Prussia. He used the Franco-Prussian war to bring the German southern states into this union. • Realpolitik • Danish war • Schleiswig-Holstein • Austro-Prussian war • North German Confederation • Franco-Prussian War Flip

  37. The new North German Confederation 1866 Flip

  38. After victory in the Austro-Prussian war, Bismarck created a constitution for the confederation. Each state had its own government, but the king of Prussia (William I) became president and Bismarck his chancellor. They controlled the army and foreign affairs. There also was a legislature of 2 houses. The lower house members were voted for by universal male suffrage. • Related Ideas Flip

  39. How Italy was reorganized at the Congress of Vienna 1815 Flip

  40. Lombary and Venetia were taken by Austria. (Venetia was later taken back by Italy as a result of the Austro-Prussian war. Central Italy and Rome were ruled by the papacy. Sardinia and Piedmont were ruled by Italian monarchs. • Austro-Prussian war Flip

  41. Realpolitik during the age of Nationalism Flip

  42. Realpolitik was the politics of reality. It was realistic and in a way, signified the end of romanticism. • Related Ideas Flip

  43. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte in the Second French Republic Flip

  44. He became involved in French politics in 1848, when universal male suffrage won him the presidency. He believed that the government should represent the people and that it should try to help them economically. (This was his greatest success) He created the Falloux Law and deprived the poor the right to vote. Elected to a 4-year term, but in 1851 he dismissed the National Assembly and got power in a coup d’etat. He later restored universal male suffrage, which made him president for 10 years, a 3rd vote made him emperor and he became Napoleon III. • Falloux Law • Presidential election of 1848 • Economic reforms Flip

  45. How Louis Napoleon Bonaparte won presidential election 1848 Flip

  46. He won because of 3 main reasons: His uncle, Napoleon I had become romanticized. Second, as Karl Marx stressed, middle-class and property owners feared socialism, so they wanted a tough ruler. Third, he wrote The Elimination of Poverty and Napoleonic Ideas. • Related Ideas Flip

  47. Napoleon III and his reforms 1866 Flip

  48. His greatest success was with the economy, especially in the 1850s. He encouraged new investment banks and railroad construction. He also encouraged a general economic expansion through rebuilding Paris and improving urban environment . He granted workers right to form unions and to strike in the 1860s. He also gave the National Assembly greater freedom as well as opposition groups. • Related Ideas Flip

  49. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte’s two conservative measures passed after being elected 1866 Flip

  50. He created the Falloux Law, which increased the role of the Catholic Church in children’s education. He also deprived the poor people the right to vote. The Falloux Law was taken away in the 3rd French Republic when Jules Ferry took power. Louis Napoleon brought back universal male suffrage in 1851. • Why he passed these laws Flip

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