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Livestock Terms and Breeds

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  1. Livestock Terms and Breeds Agriculture I

  2. General Livestock Terms • Barren – not capable of producing offspring • Cull – to eliminate one or more animals from the breeding herd or flock • Composite breed – a breed that has been formed by crossing 2 or more breeds (synthetic breed) • Crossbreeding – mating animals from genetically diverse groups within a species • Dam – female parent • Sire – male parent • Dry – non-lactating female

  3. General Livestock Terms • Estrus – the period of mating activity in the female mammal. • Finish – the degree of fatness of an animal • Gestation – the time from breeding or conception of a female until she gives birth to her young • Herd – a group of animals • Heterosis – (hybrid vigor) Performance of offspring that is greater than the average of the parents

  4. General Livestock Terms • Inheritance – the transmission of genes from parents to offspring • Non-ruminant – mono-gastric animal • Open – non-pregnant females • Polled – naturally or genetically hornless • Purebred – an animal eligible for registry with a recognized breed association. • Puberty – the age at which the reproductive organs become functionally operative

  5. General Livestock Terms • Ruminant – a mammal whose stomach has 4 parts (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum) • Seedstock – breeding animals (purebred) • Wet – milking female • Weanling – an animal of weaning age • Weaning – separating young animals from their dams so offspring can no longer suckle

  6. Beef Terms • Bovine – a general family grouping of cattle • Bull - mature male • Cow - mature female with one calf • Heifer - female that has not calved yet • Steer - castrated male prior to puberty • Stag - castrated male after puberty • Calf - young beef animal • Calve – to give birth to a calf • British breeds – breeds of beef cattle originating in England • Continental breeds – breed cattle originating in countries other than England

  7. Sheep Terms • Ram/Buck - mature male • Ewe - female, prior to and after lambing • Wether - castrated male prior to puberty • Stag - castrated male after puberty • Lamb - young sheep or the process of giving birth to a lamb • Mutton – meat from a sheep that is over 1 year old • Wool – the fibers that grow from the skin of sheep

  8. Swine Terms • Boar - mature male • Sow - mature female after farrowing • Barrow - castrated male prior to puberty • Stag - castrated male after puberty • Gilt - female prior to farrowing • Pig(let) -young pig • Farrow – to give birth to pigs • Litter – giving birth to multiple young

  9. Horse Terms • Stallion - mature male • Mare - mature female after foaling • Gelding - castrated male • Filly - female prior to foaling • Colt - male, uncastrated, up to 3 yrs. old • Foal - young male or female horse or the act of giving birth

  10. Chicken Terms • Poultry – term that includes chickens, turkeys, geese, pigeons, peafowls, guineas, and game birds • Cock/rooster - mature male • Hen - mature female • Cockerel - young male prior to puberty • Capon - castrated male prior to puberty • Pullet - young female prior to laying • Chick - young chicken • Boiler – a young meat-type chicken of either sex • Clutch – eggs laid by a hen on consecutive days

  11. External Anatomy • Beef Main Terms:Loin, Rump, Tail head, Stifle, Brisket, Rib, Quarter, Rear flank, Forearm, Hook, Pin, Round, Loin, Rib, Flank, Plate, Chuck, Brisket, Shank • Sheep Main Terms:Rump, Loin, Back (Rack), Shoulder, Leg, Rear flank, Fore flank, Breast, Leg, Breast, Loin, Rack, Shoulder, Shank • Swine Main Terms: Shoulder, Loin, Rump, Ham, Rear flank, Fore flank, Jowl, Boston Butt, Loin, Ham, Jowl, Picnic Shoulder, Spare Ribs, Belly

  12. Beef Cattle Parts

  13. Sheep Parts

  14. Identify Common Beef Breeds: • Continental Breeds: • Charolais • Simmental • Limousin • Gelbveih • Salers • Chianina • British (English) Breeds: • Angus (Black and Red) • Horned and Polled Hereford • Shorthorn • U.S. Breeds: • Brahman • Brangus • Braford • Beefmaster • Longhorn

  15. British Breeds

  16. Angus

  17. Angus Traits • Originated in Scotland • Most popular breed in VA • Black in color (Also Red Angus - different breed) and polled (means NO horns) • Early maturing • Low birth weights • Marbles well (marbling is putting fat into muscle - that’s what makes you steak taste GOOD = choice cuts means more $$$)

  18. Red Angus

  19. Hereford

  20. Hereford • Horned Herefords originated in England - Polled Herefords were first bred in the USA • Red body with white face and usually other white marking on the legs and belly can be horned (with horns) or polled • Hardy, adaptable to harsh cold climate • Early maturing (but not very good at marbling • Work well for cross-breeding

  21. Shorthorn

  22. Shorthorn • Originated in England • Can be red, white, or roan (mix of white and another color) in color • Can be horned or polled • Dual purpose breed - can be used for milk and meat • Noted for maternal ability • more docile than any other breed; excellent disposition

  23. Continental Breeds

  24. Charolais

  25. Charolais • Originated from France • White in color • Can be horned or polled • Heavily muscled • Considered a bull breed - because they add weight through muscle • Heavy birth weights • Late maturing – larger carcass weight

  26. Simmental

  27. Simmental • Originated from Switzerland • Can be either yellow/red with white or black with white • In the US we tend to breed more for black and white (US likes black colored hides) • Was originally dual purpose, now used mainly as a beef breed • Larger mature size – increased input = increased output (good for VA because of forage)

  28. Limousin

  29. Limousin • Originated in France • Can be either golden or black in color • Can be horned or polled • High weight gain = excellent cutability • Late maturing

  30. Gelbvieh

  31. Gelbvieh • Originated in Austria and Germany • Golden colored • Can be horned or polled • Developed as a dual-purpose breed • Excellent maternal traits • High birth weights • Late maturing

  32. Salers

  33. Salers • Originated in France • Dark red in color • Typically have a longer, shaggy haircoat • Horned

  34. Chianina

  35. Chianina • Originated in Italy (Chiana Valley-Tuscany) • White to steel gray in color with black points (nose, legs) • One of the oldest breeds - used as models for Roman sculpture • Horned • Extremely large frame • Low milk production • Terminal breed

  36. Brahman

  37. Brahman • Originated in India • Various colors, but greys and browns are predominant • Characteristic hump over shoulder, large droopy ears, and lots of excess skin under neck • Bos Indicus breed of cattle (not Bos Taurus) • Heat and parasite resistance (big advantage) • Low birth weights • Undesirable carcass traits (big disadvantage)

  38. American Breeds

  39. Brangus

  40. Brangus • Developed in USA • Cross of Brahman (3/8) and Angus (5/8) • Almost always black and polled • Breed to get the good meat characteristics of the Angus with the heat tolerance of the Brahman

  41. Braford

  42. Braford • Developed in the USA • Cross of Hereford and Brahman cattle • Generally have coat pattern of Hereford with Brahmans’ excess skin • Can be horned or polled

  43. Beefmaster

  44. Beefmaster • Developed in the USA • 3 way cross between Hereford (1/4), Shorthorn (1/4), and Brahman (1/2) • Selected for ability to grow well under range conditions (out in LARGE areas of land, means they must be able to grow well without additional feed and little extra care)

  45. Longhorn

  46. Longhorn • Originated in the USA • Generally multicolored • Characteristic long horns • Bred historically for meat and trail drive to market • Now bred mainly as a hobby (roping cattle, for their horns) • Poor meat quality • High fertility