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AASHTO LRFD: Structural Foundations and Earth Retaining Structures. Specification Background What’s Happening Now! Limit States, Soil and Rock Properties Deep Foundations Shallow Foundations Earth Retaining Structures Jerry DiMaggio, P. E., Principal Bridge Engineer (Geotechnical)

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Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures
AASHTO LRFD:Structural Foundations and Earth Retaining Structures

  • Specification Background What’s Happening Now!

  • Limit States, Soil and Rock Properties

  • Deep Foundations

  • Shallow Foundations

  • Earth Retaining Structures

    Jerry DiMaggio, P. E., Principal Bridge Engineer (Geotechnical)

    Federal Highway Administration

    Office of Bridge Technology

    Washington D.C.



Aashto specification background geotechnical engineering presence
AASHTO Specification Background: Geotechnical Engineering Presence

* TRB/ NCHRP Activities (A LOT!)

* Geotechnical Engineering does NOT have a broad based presence on AASHTO SubCommittees and Task Forces as do other technical specialties.

* SubCommittee on Construction (guide construction specs)

* SubCommittee on Materials (specs on materials and testing standards)

* SubCommittee on Bridges and Structures (specs on materials/ systems, design, and construction)


History of aashto design construction specifications for bridges and structures
History of AASHTO: Design & Construction Specifications for Bridges and Structures

* First structural “Guideline Specification” early 1930s

(A code yet NOT A code!).

* First “significant” Geotechnical content 1989.

* First LRFD specification 1994 (Current – 2004, 3rd edition).

* First REAL Geotechnical involvement in Bridge SubCommittee activities @ 1996. (Focus on mse walls).

* Technical advances to Standard Specifications STOPPED in 1998 to encourage LRFD use (secret).

* Major rewrites needed to walls and foundations sections (NOW COMPLETE).


Geotechnical scope aashto design construction specifications for bridges and structures
“Geotechnical Scope”: Bridges and Structures AASHTO Design & Construction Specifications for Bridges and Structures

* Topics Included: Subsurface Investigations, soil and rock properties, shallow foundations, driven piles, drilled shafts, rigid and flexible culverts, abutments, WALLS (cantilever, mse, crib, bin, anchor).

* Topics NOT addressed: integral abutments, micropiles, augercast piles, soil nails, reinforced slopes, and ALL SOIL and ROCK EARTHWORK FEATURES.


Standard and lrfd aashto specifications
Standard and LRFD AASHTO Specifications Bridges and Structures

* Currently AASHTO has 2 separate specifications: Standard specs 17th edition and LRFD, 2004 3rd edition.

* Standard Specifications use a combination of working stress and load factor design platform.

* LRFD uses a limit states design platform with different load and resistance factors (than LFD).


Lrfd implementation status
LRFD IMPLEMENTATION STATUS Bridges and Structures

Geotechnically, most States still use a working stress approach for earthworks, structural foundations, and earth retaining structures. Several States have totally adopted LRFD.

Many State Geo/Structural personnel and consultants ARE NOT FAMILAR with the content of LRFD 3rd edition.

“AASHTO and FHWA have agreed that all state DOTs will use LRFD for NEW structure design by 10/07.”


What are unique geotechnical issues related to lrfd
What are UNIQUE Geotechnical issues related to LRFD? Bridges and Structures

* Strong influence of construction on design.

* GEOTECHs strong bias toward performance based specifications.

* Natural variability of GEO materials.

* Variability in the type, and frequency of tests, and method to determine design property values of soil and rock.

* Differences between earthwork and structural foundation design model approaches.

* Influence of regional and local factors.

* General lack of data on limit state conditions.


What happening now
What Happening Now? Bridges and Structures

* FHWA sponsored a complete rewrite of Section 10 during 2004. The rewrite was prepared by National subject matter experts and had broad input from a number of Key State Dots, (including T-15 member States), and the Geotechnical community (ASCE - GI, DFI, ADSC, PDCA).

* During the Proposed spec development @ 2000 comments were addressed. The Proposed spec was then distributed to all States for review. An additional @ 1000 comments were addressed.

* The revised Proposed Specification was advanced and approved by the AASHTO’s Bridge and Structures Sub-Committeee in June 2005.

The revised Proposed Specification is used in the NHI LRFD Substructure course which currently available.


Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures

Fundamentals of LRFD Bridges and Structures

Principles of Limit State Designs

* Define the term “Limit State”

* Define the term “Resistance”

* Identify the applicability of each of the four primary limit states.

* Understand the components of the fundamental LRFD equation.


Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures

A Limit State is a Bridges and Structuresdefined condition beyond which a structural component, ceases to satisfy the provisions for which it is designed.

Resistance is a quantifiable value that defines the point beyond which the particular limit state under investigation for a particular component will be exceeded.


Resistance can be defined in terms of
Resistance can be defined in terms of: Bridges and Structures

* Load/Force (static/ dynamic, dead/ live)

* Stress (normal, shear, torsional)

* Number of cycles

* Temperature

* Strain


Limit states
Limit States Bridges and Structures

* Strength Limit State

* Extreme Event Limit State

* Service Limit State

* Fatigue Limit State

L

I

S

T


Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures

Strength Limit State Bridges and Structures


Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures

Extreme Event Limit State Bridges and Structures


Service limit state
Service Limit State Bridges and Structures


Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures

Service Limit State Bridges and Structures


Rn fs q sh i g i q i r r f r n
Rn / FS Bridges and Structures QShigiQi≤ Rr = fRn

hi =

gi =

Qi =

Rr =

f =

Rn =

Load modifier (eta)

Load factor (gamma)

Force effect

Factored resistance

Resistance factor (phi)

Nominal resistance


Sh i g i q i r r f r n

Bridges and Structures

ShigiQi≤ Rr = fRn

Qn

Rn

f(g,)

 Qn

Probability of Occurrence

 Rn

R

Q

Q or R


Subsurface materials
Subsurface Materials Bridges and Structures

* Soil

* Rock

* Water

* Organics


Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures

10.4 SOIL AND ROCK PROPERTIES Bridges and Structures

10.4.1 Informational Needs

10.4.2 Subsurface Exploration

10.4.3 Laboratory Tests

10.4.3.1 Soil Tests

10.4.3.2 Rock Tests

10.4.4 In-situ Tests

10.4.5 Geophysical Tests

10.4.6 Selection of Design Properties

10.4.6.1 Soil Strength

10.4.6.1.1 Undrained strength of Cohesive Soils

10.4.6.1.2 Drained Strength of Cohesive Soils

10.4.6.1.3 Drained strength of Granular Soils

10.4.6.2 Soil Deformation

10.4.6.3 Rock Mass Strength

10.4.6.4 Rock Mass Deformation

10.4.6.5 erodibility of rock


Soil characteristics
Soil Characteristics Bridges and Structures

* Composed of individual grains of rock

* Relatively low strength

* Coarse grained (+ #200)

* High permeability

* Fine grained (- #200)

* Low permeability

* Time dependant effects


Rock characteristics
Rock Characteristics Bridges and Structures

* Strength

* Intermediate geomaterials,qu = 50-1500 psi

* Hard rock, qu > 1500 psi

* Rock mass properties


Undrained strength of cohesive soils s u
Undrained Strength of Cohesive Soils, s Bridges and Structuresu

Vane Shear Test

f=0

su

s

qu

Unconfined Compression

su = qu/2

Typical Values

su = 250 - 4000 psf


Drained strength of cohesive soils c and f f
Drained Strength of Cohesive Soils, c’ and Bridges and Structuresf’f

Triaxial Compression

CU Test

Typical Values

c’ = 100 - 500 psf

f’f = 20o - 35o


Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures

Guided Walk Through Bridges and Structures

For N160 = 10, select ’f = 30o


Soil deformation
Soil Deformation Bridges and Structures

Initial elastic settlement (all soils)

0

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10

-12

Settlement (in)

1 10 100 1000 10000

Time (days)

Primary consolidation

Secondary consolidation

Fine-grained (cohesive) soils


Consolidation properties
Consolidation Properties Bridges and Structures

eo

p’ = Preconsolidation Stress

1

Cr

Void Ratio (e)

Cc

Cs

0.5

0.1

1

10

100

Log10v’


Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures

Stress Range, 40 – 80 kPa Bridges and Structures

2.65

2.6

2.55

2.5

2.45

2.4

2.35

2.3

2.25

One log cycle

De=Ca=0.06

Void ratio (e)

tp

0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

Elapsed Time (min)


Elastic properties of soil
Elastic Properties of Soil Bridges and Structures

  • Young’s Modulus, Es

    • Typical values, 20 – 2000 tsf

  • Poisson’s Ratio, u

    • Typical values, 0.2 – 0.5

  • Shear Modulus, G

    • Typical values, Es / [2 (1 + u)]

  • Determination by correlation to N160 or su, or in-situ tests


Rock properties
Rock Properties Bridges and Structures

  • Laboratory testing is for small intact rock specimens

  • Rock mass is too large to be tested in lab or field

  • Rock mass properties are obtained by correlating intact rock to large-scale rock mass behavior – failures in tunnels and mine slopes

  • Requires geologic expertise


Intact rock strength
Intact Rock Strength Bridges and Structures

Unconfined Compression, qu

Typical Values

qu = 1500 - 50000 psi

Point Load Test


Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures

Rock Quality Bridges and Structures

0.8 ft

Sound

0.7 ft

Not sound, highly weathered

Not sound, centerline pieces < 4 inches, highly weathered

Length, L

0.8 ft

Sound

0.6 ft

Core Run

Total = 4 ft

0.2 ft

Not sound

Sound

0.7 ft

CR = 95% RQD = 53%


Csir rock mass rating system
CSIR Rock Mass Rating System Bridges and Structures

  • This system is based on qu, RQD, joint spacing, joint condition and water condition.


Rock mass strength
Rock Mass Strength Bridges and Structures

Shear stress, t

f’i

t

C1’

stm

s3

s

s1

Effective Normal Stress, s’

f’i = tan-1(4 h cos2[30+0.33sin-1(h-3/2)]-1)-1/2

t = (cot f’i – cos f’i)mqu/8

h = 1 + 16(ms’n+squ)/(3m2qu)


Intact rock deformation e i
Intact Rock Deformation, E Bridges and Structuresi

  • Typical values range from 1000 to 13000 ksi

    Poisson’s Ratio, u

  • Typical values range from 0.1 to 0.3


Rock mass deformation
Rock Mass Deformation Bridges and Structures

(psi x 106)

90

70

50

30

10

12

10

8

6

4

2

In situ modulus of deformation, EM (GPa)

Ea = 2 RMR - 100

10 30 50 70 90

Rock mass rating RMR


Aashto lrfd structural foundations and earth retaining structures

Read More About It Bridges and Structures

GEC 5

FHWA-IF-02-034


Jerry a dimaggio p e principal bridge engineer tel 202 366 1569 fax 202 366 3077

Jerry A. DiMaggio P. E. Bridges and StructuresPrincipal Bridge Engineer TEL: (202) 366-1569FAX: (202) 366-3077

The best Geotechnical web site in town! www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge

WOW! FREE STUFF FROM THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT!