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Applications of corpus analysis in EAP: research, learning, and teaching

Applications of corpus analysis in EAP: research, learning, and teaching

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Applications of corpus analysis in EAP: research, learning, and teaching

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  1. Applications of corpus analysis in EAP: research, learning, and teaching Martin Hewings The University of Birmingham m.j.hewings@bham.ac.uk

  2. Outline of talk • Corpus analysis in EAP research • Students learning from corpora: Data-driven learning and an alternative • Teachers learning from corpora: Classroom applications

  3. 22%

  4. Features of 23 JEAP ‘corpus’ papers • Paper types • 18 corpus analyses • Corpus content • 13 writing; 4 speech; one both; journal articles predominant; focus on single soc sci disciplines • Corpus types • mainly expert/ published • Focus of analysis • mainly particular lexical/ grammatical features

  5. Corpora as resources for learners: data-driven learning (DDL) DDL: • exposes students to ‘target’ language forms • provides authentic examples • provides information beyond dictionary or grammar • encourages inductive learning • encourages learner autonomy

  6. Lee & Swales (2006): DDL “…an exceptional group of students – highly acculturated into the genres of their discourse communities, mostly on the way to their PhDs, eager to perfect their English, possessing of advanced computer skills, and perfectly comfortable with quantitative data.”

  7. DDL: some reservations • lack of evidence to link DDL to language improvement • are the outcomes worth the time, effort and money? • it doesn’t suit all students

  8. Selecting corpus data for students (as an alternative to DDL) • An example: MBA students’ use of ‘I’ • ‘Research article (RA) corpus’: 120, 000 words • ‘MBA corpus’: essays, 22,000 words

  9. MBA corpuson TV or from magazine, I am in the opinion that service more consumption of fuels. I am almost certain that there world imports composition. I believe services commodities s composition. In the future I believe there will be a new osing a million dollars. So I believe services commodities wector. As a result of this, I can predict that there will mports appeared. After 1987, I do not think that there was a mports about one third. But I don't think it will grow so er. As a result, therefore, I expect that the countries more than other commodities. I expect service industry will ervices" and is intangible. I feel that the intangible veloped in the next future. I personally see the above idea world. But, before I go on, I should make a point. After ore detail analysis, I think I should take deeper consideratio a long term point of view, I suppose the composition of

  10. MBA corpus on TV or from magazine, I am in the opinion that service more consumption of fuels. I am almost certain that there world imports composition. I believe services commodities s composition. In the future I believe there will be a new osing a million dollars. So I believe services commodities wector. As a result of this, I can predict that there will mports appeared. After 1987, I do not think that there was a mports about one third. But I don't think it will grow so er. As a result, therefore, I expect that the countries more than other commodities. I expect service industry will ervices" and is intangible. I feel that the intangible veloped in the next future. I personally see the above idea world. But, before I go on, I should make a point. After ore detail analysis, I think I should take deeper consideratio a long term point of view, I suppose the composition of

  11. Journals: published writing RA corpusuring the estimation period. I also computed Patell's (1976, p. y. The question: When should I buy? has one logical answer:(SVR) metric (in all cases), I choose to present only the resulthe wall' statements such as 'I don't care how you do it, just doon environment. In addition, I examine several subhypotheses basSize Test. In this section, I first test the hypothesis of diffy perennial question: should I invest now or wait for the as a long way from reality: 'I just did not want to be part of aep asking themselves,'How do I know? What evidence is there?' Thy? By information technology I mean the hardware and software, cI were doing this what would I need?' Another useful heuristic red per ASR No. 190. That is, I test the hypothesis that inflatioe key questions such as: 'If I were doing this what would I needh domestically and globally. I will, therefore, focus more on th

  12. Journals: published writing RA corpusuring the estimation period. I also computed Patell's (1976, p. y. The question: When should I buy? has one logical answer:(SVR) metric (in all cases), I choose to present only the resulthe wall' statements such as 'I don't care how you do it, just doon environment. In addition, I examine several subhypotheses basSize Test. In this section, I first test the hypothesis of diffy perennial question: should I invest now or wait for the as a long way from reality: 'I just did not want to be part of aep asking themselves,'How do I know? What evidence is there?' Thy? By information technology I mean the hardware and software, cI were doing this what would I need?' Another useful heuristic red per ASR No. 190. That is, I test the hypothesis that inflatioe key questions such as: 'If I were doing this what would I needh domestically and globally. I will, therefore, focus more on th

  13. Journals: published writing RA corpusuring the estimation period. I also computed Patell's (1976, p. y. The question: When should I buy? has one logical answer:(SVR) metric (in all cases), I choose to present only the resulthe wall' statements such as 'I don't care how you do it, just doon environment. In addition, I examine several subhypotheses basSize Test. In this section, I first test the hypothesis of diffy perennial question: should I invest now or wait for theas a long way from reality: 'I just did not want to be part of aep asking themselves,'How do I know? What evidence is there?' Thy? By information technology I mean the hardware and software, cI were doing this what would I need?' Another useful heuristic red per ASR No. 190. That is, I test the hypothesis that inflatioe key questions such as: 'If I were doing this what would I needh domestically and globally. I will, therefore, focus more on th

  14. Teachers learning from corpora: checking intuitions What adverbs come before… ……. similar but not …….different? ……. different but not …..similar? ……. similar or ……… different?

  15. Teachers learning from corpora: checking intuitions • it is [adjective] to-infinitive • it is [adjective] that • Cambridge Corpus of Academic English (CCAE); about 400 million words of published academic written text (& about 1 million words of speech)

  16. Teachers learning from corpora: checking intuitions • it is [adjective] to-infinitive 48,170 • it is [adjective] that 24,115

  17. it is [adjective] tocrucial difficult helpful important necessary possible safe straightforward> 4000 times < 500 times possible 7784 important 5019 difficult 4345 necessary 4103 straightforward 481 crucial 282 helpful 255 safe 194

  18. it is [adjective] thatclear interesting likely notable possible significant surprising true> 1000 times < 300 times clear 5284 possible 4116 likely 2561 true 1170 significant 257 surprising 251 interesting 235 notable 206

  19. Teachers learning from corpora: discovering new information

  20. Some nouns have a related adjective ending: • -ic base – basic (not basical) • -ical astrology – astrological (not astrologic) • -ic or –ical analysis – analytic/ analytical

  21. -ic or –ical ? ecological and geographical (rather than ecological and geographic) taxonomic and geographic (rather than taxonomic and geographical)

  22. technologic or technogical? • TV and other viewing media are very important in this most technologic era. …in this most technologictechnological era. • In the early IVF literature, patient experiences of infertility are outlined as negative, requiring a technologic solution. • Vast majority from ‘medicine and health’

  23. Teachers learning from corpora: finding authentic examples catastrophic – risk – event • Premature discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy markedly increases the risk of stent thrombosis, a catastrophic event that frequently leads to MI and/or death. • A final important difference related to the nature of the risk may be that some workplace mortality risks tend to involve sudden, catastrophic events, whereas air pollution-related risks tend to involve longer periods of disease and suffering prior to death.

  24. The corpus as a source of authentic examples: catastrophic – risk - event • …risk of a catastrophic event such as… (GS= 16) • …there is always a risk of …. (GS= 4,670) • …such as forest fire… (GS= 616) • …such as forest fire or flood (GS= 1) Into the material: • There is always a risk of a catastrophic event such as forest fire or flood.

  25. From corpus research to teaching materials: ‘on the surface’

  26. From corpus research to teaching materials: ‘below the surface’

  27. From corpus research to teaching materials: ‘below the surface’

  28. Applications of corpus analysis in EAP: research, learning, and teaching Martin Hewings The University of Birmingham m.j.hewings@bham.ac.uk