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Discourse on teaching with emotional intelligence: can it transform student teacher performance?. Thesis study; Eamonn Pugh; 12 th March 2010. Subject knowledge. Teaching and learning methods. Emotional intelligence. Why this research is important.
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Discourse on teaching with emotional intelligence: can it transform student teacher performance? Thesis study; Eamonn Pugh; 12th March 2010
Subject knowledge Teaching and learning methods Emotional intelligence Why this research is important Teachers can connect with learners beyond transmission of ideas and facts, thereby transforming the experience. Not using emotional intelligence diminishes the value of subject knowledge and learning and teaching methods (Mortiboys, 2005) “Teacher preparation programs need to support teacher candidates by scaffolding the reflectiveabilities surrounding emotional intelligence and by providing sufficient time within the curriculumto infuse this process”. (Kremenitzer, 2005)
Emotional intelligence Tuning into emotions and taking appropriateaction (Orme, 2000) Pugh, 2008, Mayer & Salovey 1989; Gardner, 1993; Goleman 1995)
Terminology Vocabulary: ‘Emotional intelligence’ is applied as ‘emotional competence’. Discourse about the EI of ourselves and others uses ‘emotion literacy’. 4
Contested ground Theoretical basis - “old wine in new bottle” (Matthews, 2002) Validity of measurement - socially desirable responding Amoral – Aristotle’s ‘schooling of emotions’ is part of moral education, but EI not always used as a virtue (Kristjánsson, 2006) Neglected in teaching because: Traditional view of emotions - “vulgar impediment to cognition” (Hawkey, 2006): Emphasis on negative aspects of emotions associated with teaching (anxiety, anger ..) 5
The methodology Action researchaiming to change and improve the practice of researcher and student participants (teacher educator and student teachers) Researcher as participant ‘insider’ Student participants as collaborative partners
A cyclical research process Linear process – one stab at the hypothesis or issue Cyclical process – interim reports, rethinks, change of direction to get closer to the truth. Research purpose identified Research refocussed Report written N cycles N +1 Investigation planned Data collected Data analysed & interpreted Reflections & conclusions Bassey, 1995
Cycle 1 – the hypothesis Formative assessment of student teachers’ emotional intelligence improves their classroom performance 8
The pilot data set Mentor Int. EQ 1 QTS EQ 2 QTS 2 Trainee Int. Student A Student B Student C Student D Mortiboys,2002 Week 3 joint observation Week 7 joint observation Week 8 interviews
You wrote down things that she didn’t realise she was doing. When I did my last observation last week, there was a big difference I could feel it going wrong and I was mad at myself. I was more in control in 2nd lesson Cycle 1 findings The emotional intelligence things overlapped with what I picked up using the normal lesson observation format • Linked improvements in emotional intelligence and overall performance (QTS professional standards) • Importance of modelling of EI • Trust needed (relationships) • Socially-desirable responses? It’s made me reflect upon my own practice as well… because it’s more focused Teachers could sometimes learn from students too. Especially here,.. they’re happy to hear your ideas. If the study hadn’t have been there, maybe the focus wouldn’t have been there and I wouldn’t have improved so much
So, some reading on Power and Emotions • Forms of power (French & Raven): • coercive, reward, legitimate, referent and expert • Researcher • Mentor • Governments (SEL, SEAL)
Power and Emotions • “Emotional pupils and teachers could share a common discourse. But this will be managed and monitored formally as sets of competences and outcomes. There will be a clear market opportunity for those who offer.... the objective testing of the emotional intelligence of those within them” (Hartley, 2002:p17) • Unethical? But what about my first cycle of data collection?
A change of approach Aim: Improved emotionally-intelligent teaching by student teachers, but by empowering them to take charge of their learning. Less positivist/scientific: ‘sufficient to recognise that understanding is of a higher order than accuracy’ (Lucaks, 2002) Social construction of knowledge; invention of multiple social realities, validated by participants (Ovens, 2009)
Cycle 2 – the issue Discourse on teaching with emotional intelligence: can it transform student teacher performance? 14
Cycle 2 – researcher and participants Participants: 8 Primary PGCE student teachers – volunteers from cohort of 100 students About to begin teaching on a developing (‘middle’) school placement My relationship with participants - lectured to them within cohort, module tutor to some, placement tutor to some.
Cycle 2 – data collection Fitness for purpose – empowerment of participants, emphasis on reflective discourse Video-recording of participant teaching: taken by mentor/peer Completion of EI self-assessment sheet by participant (having viewed video) Short reflective writingabout the experience Individual interviews - 15 minute with researcher
Some references Bassey, M (1995) Creating Education through Research Kinklingtom Moor Press Gardner, H. (1993) Multiple Intelligence: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam. Hartley, D. (2003) The instrumentalisation of the expressive in education, British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 51 (1) Kremenitzer, J (2005) Emotional Intelligence in Teacher Education, Focus on Teacher Education Vol. 5 (4) Lucaks, 2002; cited by Conway, J (2009) Negotiating Tricky Corners: Becoming a Researcher in Education; ESCalate Conference, B’ham. http://escalate.ac.uk/5843 accessed 6/7/09 Mayer, J. and Salovey, P. (1989) Emotional Intelligence, Baywood Publishing Inc. Mortiboys, A (2002) The Emotionally Intelligent Lecturer. SEDA Special No. 12 Mortiboys, A. (2005) Teaching with Emotional Intelligence, Routledge. Orme, G. (2001) Emotionally Intelligent Living, Crown Publishing House. Pugh, E (2008) If emotionally-intelligence teaching isn’t on our standards agenda, is the ladder leaning against the wrong wall? Practitioner Research in HE’, Vol 2(1) UniPress Cumbria 18
Next data set - interviews 10 March 2010 Ethical decision In setting up participant interviews for next week, I received the following emailed response :Subject: RE: Emotionally-intelligent teaching"Hello! can make 8.10 on Monday. Will you be recording the interview in any way? I'm a bit nervous of being video recorded!“Video recording the interviews would have enabled me to use not only analyse words and how they are used, but facial expressions and other body action cues. This would arguably show respect for the truth (Bassey, 1995), but not for the participant who doesn't want a video-recording. Which comes first ..the truth or the participant? If I claim my research to be a collaborative partnership between researcher and participant (Somekh, 2006) and aim to empower the participants through discourse, there is no choice.I told student it would be audio recorded with a dictaphone. 19
Delegate activities Use and evaluate the EI assessment tool (while observing a 13 minute lesson video clip) Design personalised interview questions for one of the student teachers, informed by the submitted EI self-assessment and, where available, his/her short reflection on the process. The interview should seek to develop discourse on teaching with emotional intelligence …. maybe even the sort of experience that could transform their performance! 20
Delegate reflections at this stage… Are there any concepts or processes that you will take away from today i.e. think further about and/or take action on Is there a place for emotional intelligence in teaching? In teacher education? Finally, thank you so much for your participation and collaboration! 21