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L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning

L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning

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L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning

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  1. L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning LESLLA Koeln, Germany Dr. Heide Spruck Wrigley Literacywork International

  2. LESLLA in Koeln Not just about learning English Although expectations persist that everyone speak English .. Or

  3. Framing Considerations

  4. Presentation Informed by • Teacher training on US-Mexico border • National studies on ESL - L1 use in L2 • Dpt of Labor – Language and Literacy in US and Mexico • Technical Assistance on dual language program designs • Project on mediated self-access to technology • National Academy of Sciences – Adult Lit and Cognition • Life and work consists of moving across and between languages

  5. Associations and Connections Cognitive sciences shows that the brain learns through associations of ideas and concepts previously learned

  6. Brain Makes Assocations Between • Prior knowledge and current knowledge • Multiple sources of input (text, visual, auditory) • Different kinds of texts • Previous experiences and new experiences • Oral and written language • L1 and L2 systems These connections deepen learning and information retrieval becomes more effective

  7. Connecting Fish Stories Teacher can preview anectode in L1 or in the target language

  8. A Typical Conversation with my Mom http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmecyCCdknk

  9. Using L1 to Facilitate Comprehension • Teacher offers preview of video in L1 • Students predict what words they might hear (L1 and L2) • Teacher focuses students on a few key phrases (I don’t like fish; it’s good for you) – T allows student to translate • Students watch and listen – focus on key words of the video • Students work in pairs to retell story – using stick figures as part of a story board. Students may use L1 as they discuss the story – but try to recreate dialogue in English • Teachers work with students to recreate story in English, using story boards (Language Experience)

  10. Research in Cognition and L1/L2

  11. Research in Cognition and L1/L2 • Both L1 and L2 systems are active in the brain • L2 learners are mental jugglers • There is no switching off L1 • Translation continues even with advanced proficiency • Cummins: Underlying Common Proficiency • Linguistic knowledge from L1 system transfers to L2 • Both as interference and as source of knowledge • “The more you know, the more you know” See references

  12. The What Works Study • Examined “learning opportunities” and instructional practices that promote English acquisition for LESLLA learners (Condelli and Wrigley, 2009) • Showed that the “judicious” use of the native language positively influences second language development (ESL) of LESLLA learners • Found that learners in programs where L1 was used judiciously had higher English scores than learners in classes where only English was used

  13. Does Multi-lingualism Make You Smarter? • Bilingual children score higher on cognitive tests • Able to ignore irrelevant information • Better able to switch between tasks • Bilingualism protects against dementia (less precipitous decline on tasks that demand “executive function”) - Judith Kroll – see references

  14. Socio-Political Contexts

  15. Language Attitudes and Ideologies • Most of the world operates in bi-or multi-lingual contexts • Where mono-linguals predominate –Encouragment and use of L1 issue becomes emotional and contentious • Fear of separatism • L2 or L1 – seen as a zero sum game • Lack of understanding of SLA: Why can’t they just … • Native languages are commonly used in L2 learning by students or bilingual teachers – and definitely by the brain • Skeleton in the closet

  16. Stealth Teaching

  17. Assumptions about Language

  18. Assumption that L2 Literacy is the Only Literacy that Counts

  19. Resurgence

  20. Heritage Languages • Resurgence of Catalan and Basque • Celtic languages • Wales – public notices and such

  21. Lost in Translation

  22. Increased Attention to L1 and L2 • Studies in the bilingual brain (imaging) • Understanding of the economic value • Higher earnings • L2 literacy not the only literacy that counts • Professionalism in Bilingual Contexts • Health care workers • Mechanics • Construction

  23. Rationale

  24. Practical Applications

  25. The Dilemma

  26. Bilingual Aides Refugee Programs in Australia Women’s Refugee Alliance Intake and Assessment • Someone who looks like me Focus Groups and Discussions • Issue of voice Bilingual Aides as Liaisons and Advocates

  27. L1 in L2 Classroom

  28. Multiple Ways of Using L1 • Welcoming Team • Making L1 and L2 interaction explicit • Contrastive analysis of writing systems • Print awareness and curiosity • Signs, labels • Peer to peer interaction • Retelling • Problem Solving Scenarios • L1 coaching (names, holidays, recognition)

  29. Problem-solving Scenarios Example: The Rich Immigrant The following slide presentation can be used with or without text or sound. We recommend the teacher preview the story orally in L1 or L2 and then tell the story using the slides without print to start. Students then retell the story based on the slides. On the second round, the class reads the story together. Students may also listen to the story independently using the audio slides.

  30. The Rich Immigrant • Story without text • Story with text • Story without text with narration • Story with text and narration Return to Beginning

  31. The Rich Immigrant WITHOUT TEXT Return to Beginning

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  44. The Rich Immigrant WITH TEXT Return to Beginning