What are biomes? • Large, distinctive areas created and maintained by climate. • Major regional community of plants and animals with similar life forms and environmental conditions. • Biomes are named after the dominant life form such as grassland or tropical rainforest.
Look back at the map to find the latitude of each biome. Tundra Taiga Temperate Deciduous Forest Scrub forest (Chaparral) Grassland Desert Tropical Rainforest Temperate Rainforest
Tropical Rainforests Deserts Temperate Forests Tundra
Biomes are determined largely by climate Temperature Precipitation Insolation (solar radiation)
What generates Earth’s climatic regions? • The Earth heats unevenly due to uneven way sunlight hits our planet.
Climate: Insolation (incoming solar radiation) • The Earth’s rotation.
Go back to the slide before to see why.. • The equator is warm and wet = tropical • Deserts are found around 30o latitude • Temperate forests and grasslands are around 45o latitude • Tundra is found at 60o latitude
What are limiting factors? • Limiting factor - the factor which limits the growth of a population because there is too little or too much of it in the environment. • Biomes and ecosystems are shaped by limiting factors. • Any species has a certain range of tolerance to these factors (tolerance thresholds) which set that species’ range and potential population.
Tropical Rainforests • 365 days of sunlight • Year round growing seasons • Warm temperatures year round • Abundant rainfall • The most productive biome • Poor soil
Desert biomes • Abundant sunshine • Temperature varies • Extremely low Precipitation • Low productivity • Water is the limiting factor
Temperate forests • Cold winters • Warm wet summers • Growing season only in summer months • Leaves fall in autumn • Soil high in organic matter • Productive farm land
Temperate Grasslands • Cold winters • Spring rain • Warm summers • Dry in late summer • Grass becomes dormant in winter and adds organic matter to the soil. • Soil is fertile from build up of organic matter (good topsoil for agriculture)
Chaparral (Mediterranean) • Hot, dry summers • Mild winters with Moisture Like Santiago
Tundra • Cold, dark winters • Short growing seasons • Permafrost • Low productivity
Things to remember: • The climate determines the biomes • Biomes are mainly located along lines of latitude on the planet • Productive biomes have longer growing seasons than less productive biomes • Temperate biomes have good conditions for soil formation
Be able to: • Link biomes to agriculture • Link biomes to carbon dioxide intake of growing plants • Link biomes to soil formation