Biomes Aquatic Biomes
Biomes • Biome-def(p70)- a lrg grp of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community • 2 types: • Aquatic-biomes located in bodies of water • Terrestrial-biomes located on land
Aquatic Biomes • 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water • Important differences between Freshwater (Freshwater Biomes) & Saltwater (Marine Biomes) environments • Abiotic & Biotic factors can change in various parts of the ocean • i.e. Abiotic-salinity, depth, light availability, temperature, pressure,etc. • i.e.Biotic-types of invertebrates, predators, producers,etc. • Lrg amts of biomass are found in the ocean • Biomass can be made up of microscopic organisms to the lrgest org.
Marine Biomes • Marine Biomes can be partitioned into zones based on availability of light. • Photic zone-def(p71)- the portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate. • i.e.-coastlines (sandy beaches, tide pools, bays, rocky shores, coral reefs,etc.) • Potential Test Questions-What characteristics would org that live in these areas have? • Aphotic zone-def(p71)-the portion of the marine biome that never receives any sunlight • i.e-deep ocean • Potential Test Question-What characteristics would org that live in these areas have?
Estuaries-Mixed Waters • Estuary-def(p71)- a coastal body of water, partially surrounded by land, in which freshwater and salt water mix • Imp Abiotic factor in estuaries= salinity (amt of salt) • Salinity in an estuary (0.5 to 17 ppt) can range from seawater (35 ppt) to freshwater (0.5ppt) • Salinity changes with tidal changes • Salinity affects the organisms that can be found in an estuary
Estuaries-Mixed Waters • Examples of Estuary organisms: • Producers-saltgrass, eel grass, cordgrass, saltmarsh hay • Tangle of producers allows for nurseries to form for: crabs, snails, shrimp • These org can feed on decaying, suspended material • Carnivores-birds, sea anemones, jellyfish, flounder, pipefish • Bacteria help decay and release of nutrients which allows them to be recycled into the estuary.
Effects of Various Factors in Marine Biomes • Tides • Intertidal zones usually have: • High levels of sunlight • High levels of nutrients (these levels can change based on tide) • High levels of oxygen (these levels can change based on tide) • Light Availability • Photic Zones • High nutrient content • Abundant living org • Plankton-def(p73)-sm org that drift & float in waters of photic zone • Can include: diatoms, eggs, juvenile larvae of marine animals • High productivity • Aphotic Zone • Areas of the ocean where no sunlight penetrates and pressure increases, and temperature decreases • Many org that live in this region depend on plankton for food, either directly or indirectly • Potential Test Question-What characteristics might an aphotic zone organism have? Why?
Freshwater Biomes • Freshwater biomes include: • Lakes -Streams • Rivers -Ponds • Organisms that could be found in a freshwater biome: • Producers-Cattails • Heterotrophs-tadpoles, aquatic insects, turtles, worms, crayfish, catfish, minnows,etc. • Abiotic factors that effect organisms in freshwater biomes: (Fig.3.7) • Temperature of water • Sunlight in water • Amt of oxygen in water
Freshwater Biomes • Other Examples of Aquatic Biomes: • Wetlands-areas where water and land meet • Types of wetlands: • Swamps- • have trees • Water flowing through them • Highly productive • Marshes- • No trees • Water flowing through them • Found inland and in coastal regions • Highly productive • Bogs • No trees • No water flowing through them