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Biomes. Tropical Rain Forest. General Info: more species than all other biomes, Canopy- l eafy tops of tall trees, understory second layer of shorter trees and vines . Abiotic Factors: Hot and wet year-round; thin, nutrient-poor soils. Tropical Rain Forest. Tropical Rain Forest.

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Tropical rain forest
Tropical Rain Forest

General Info: more species than all other biomes, Canopy- leafy tops of tall trees,

understory second layer of shorter trees and vines

Abiotic Factors: Hot and wet year-round; thin, nutrient-poor soils

Tropical rain forest1

Tropical Rain Forest

Tropical Rain Forest

Dominant Plants: Broad leaved evergreen trees; ferns; vines and climbing plants; orchids and bromeliads

Dominant Animals: sloths, jaguars; anteaters; monkeys; toucans, parrots, and parakeets; butterflies, and anacondas

Geographic Distribution: parts of S. and C. America, SE Asia, and parts of Africa, S. India, and NE Australia

Tropical dry forest
Tropical Dry Forest

  • General Info: rainfall is seasonal

    • during the dry season: the trees are deciduous so drop their leaves to conserve water.

Abiotic Factors: warm year-round; alternating wet and dry seasons; rich soils

Tropical dry forest1

Tropical Dry Forest

Tropical Dry Forest

Dominant Plants- tall, deciduous trees form a dense canopy during wet season; drought-tolerant orchids and bromeliads; aloe plants

Tropical dry forest2

Tropical Dry Forest

Tropical Dry Forest

Dominant Animals- tigers; monkeys; elephants, hog deer, and spot-billed pelican; snakes and monitor lizards.

Geographic Distribution- parts of Africa, S. and C. America, Mexico, India, Australia, and tropical islands.

Tropical savannah
Tropical Savannah

General Info: Covered with grasses. Isolated trees and shrubs. Compact soils, frequent fires.

Abiotic Factors: warm temps; seasonal rainfall; compact soil; frequent fires set by lightning.

Tropical savannah1

Tropical Savannah

Tropical Savannah

Dominant Plants: tall perennial grasses; drought-tolerant and fire-resistant trees or shrubs

Dominant Animals: lions, leopards, cheetahs, hyenas, and jackals, elephants, giraffes, and zebras; baboons; eagles, ostriches, storks; termites.

Tropical savannah2
Tropical Savannah

Tropical Savannah

Geographic Distribution- large parts or E. Africa, S. Brazil, N. Australia.


General Info-

DRY, annual precipitation less than 25 cm, extreme temp. changes day vs. night, Organisms can tolerate extreme conditions.

Abiotic Factors- low precipitation; changing temperatures; soils rich in minerals but poor inorganic material.




Dominant Plants: Cacti and other succulents; creosote bush and other plants with short growth cycles.

Dominant Animals: mountain lions, and bobcats; pronghorn antelope, desert bighorn sheep, and kangaroo rats, bats; owls, hawks, and roadrunners; ants, flies, rattlesnakes, and lizards.

Geographic Distribution: Africa, Asia, the Middle East, United States, Mexico, S. America, and Australia.

Temperate grassland
Temperate Grassland

Abiotic Factors: warm to hot summers; cold winters; moderate, seasonal precipitation; fertile soils; occasional fires.

Dominant Plants: lush perennial grasses and herbs; resistant to drought, fire, and cold

General Info: mix of grasses, some of world’s most fertile soils, periodic fires and heavy grazing by large herbivores

Temperate grassland1

Temperate Grassland

Temperate Grassland

Dominant Animals- coyotes, badgers, wolves, grizzly bears, rabbits, prairie dogs, bison; hawks, owls, snakes, ants and grasshoppers.

Geographic Distribution- Central Asia, N. America, Australia, Central Europe, and plateaus of S. America

Temperate woodland shrubland
Temperate Woodland & Shrubland

Abiotic Factors

Hot, dry summers; cool, moist winters/ thin, nutrient-poor soils, fires

General Info

Also known as chaparral; Semi-arid climate, mix of shrub & open woodlands, wildflowers & oak trees, plants have flammable oils

Temperate woodland shrubland1

Temperate Woodland & Shrubland

Temperate Woodland & Shrubland

Dominant Plants

Woody evergreen shrubs, w/ small leathery leaves, fragrant oily herbs grow in winter and die in summer

Dominant Animals

coyotes, foxes, bobcats, mountain lions, black tailed deer, rabbits, squirrels, hawks, butterflies, spiders

Geographic Distribution-

Western coasts of N. & S. America, areas around Mediterranean, S. Africa, & Australia

Temperate forest
Temperate Forest

General Info: Mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees, leaves fall in Autumn, spring flowering occurs. Soils rich in humus

Abiotic Factors: cold to moderate winters, warm summers, year round precipitation, fertile soils

Dominant Plants: Broadleaf deciduous trees, some conifers, flowering shrubs, herbs, mosses and ferns

Temperate forest1

Temperate Forest

Temperate Forest

Dominant Animals: Deer, black bears, bobcats, squirrels, raccoons, skunks, turkeys

Geographic Distribution: Eastern US, SE Canada, Most of Europe, parts of Japan, China, and Australia

Northwestern coniferous forest
Northwestern coniferous Forest

General Info: Much Rainfall from Pacific ocean, forest mostly conifers, lush vegetation sometimes called temperate rain forest.

Abiotic Factors: Mild temps, abundant precipitation fall winter and spring; relatively cool, dry summer, rocky & acidic soils

Northwestern coniferous forest1
Northwestern coniferous Forest

Dominant Plants: Douglas fir, spruce, western hemlock, redwood trees.

Dominant Animals: Bears, elk, deer, beavers, owls, bobcats, weasels

Geographic Distribution: Pacific Coast of NW US & Canada, from N. US to Alaska!

Boreal forest taiga
Boreal Forest/Taiga

General Info: Ground frozen in winter but thaws in summer.

Abiotic Factors: Long, cold winters; short, mild summers; moderate precipitation; high humidity, acidic, nutrient-poor soils

Dominant Plants: Spruce and fir, some broadleaf deciduous, small berry-bearing shrubs.

Boreal forest taiga1
Boreal Forest/Taiga

Dominant Animals: Lynx timber wolves, weasel, moose, beavers, songbirds

Geographic Distribution: N. America, Asia, N. Europe


General Info: PERMAFROST- permanently frozen subsoil, ground soggy and wet in summer

Abiotic Factors: Strong winds, low precipitation, short and soggy summers, long cold and dark winters, poorly developed soils, permafrost

Dominant Plants: Ground-hugging plants such as mosses, lichens, sedges, and short grasses


Dominant Animals: Caribous, snowy owl, arctic fox, lemmings

Geographic Distribution: northern N. America Asia and Europe